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Yoga 101 Review of postures, terminology, etc. relating to asana yoga practice

Question Answer
What is yoga? The word yoga means "union" in Sanskrit, the language of ancient India where yoga originated. We can think of the union occurring between the mind, body and spirit.
What does the term atman refer to? One's 'inner wisdom' or 'inner teacher'.
Who is Patanjali? A first century BCE philosopher who first codified yoga, in terms of the 8 Limb Path or Yoga Sutras.
What is anusara yoga? The modern form of hatha yoga, it is a set of "Universal Principles of Alignment" that underlie all yoga postures. Anusara focuses on especially "heart opening" postures and the spiritual/meditative benefits of hatha yoga.
What does the term ashtanga refer to? Ashtanga (also spelled Astanga) means "eight limbs" in Sanskrit, which refers to the eight limbs of yoga laid out in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.
What are the main focuses of ashtanga yoga? The Ashtanga method stresses daily Vinyasa flow practice using ujjayi breathing, mula bandha, uddiyana bandha, and drishti.
What is Hatha yoga? Hatha Yoga describes any of the physical practices of yoga. Hatha teaches that purification of the body (through asanas) leads to purification of the mind (ha) and spirit (prana).
What does Vinyasa mean? The word Vinyasa means “breath-synchronized movement.” Vinyasa refers to a fluid or flowing series of yoga postures, metered by rhythmic breathing.
What does the term Sutra mean? In Sanskrit, literally 'thread'. More formally, a sutra refers a rule or aphorism in Sanskrit literature or a group of aphoristic doctrinal summaries prepared for memorization.
What are the 8 Limbs of Yoga, according to Patanjali? Yama ("abstentions"), Niyama ("observances"), Asana ("meditation postures"), Pranayama ("suspending breath"), Pratyahara ("abstraction"), Dharana ("concentration"), Dhyana ("meditation"), Samadhi ("liberation")
What does Yama refer to? The Yamas make up the first ashtanga or limb of Patanjali's Yoga Sutras. They consist of 5 constraints that govern daily life: compassion, truthfulness, honesty, purity/propriety, generosity (not coveting)
What are the 5 yamas or abstentions, according to Patanjali? Ahimsa (compassion); Satya (truthfulness, not lying); Asteya (honesty, not stealing); Brahmacharaya (purity/sexual propriety); and Aparigraha (generosity, not coveting)
What does Niyama refer to? The Niyamas are concerned with our relationship to ourselves (when no-one else is looking). They are purity and cleanliness of mind, body and spirit; contentment; disciplined use of our energy; self-study; and surrender to God or the Higher Self.
What are the 5 niyamas or observances, according to Patanjali? Shaucha (cleanliness of body, mind, and spirit); Santosha (contentment); Tapas (disciplined used of our own energy); Swadhyaya (self-study); and Ishvarapranidhana (surrender to God or the Higher Self)
What are the 4 yoga teacher archetypes, according to Donna Farhi? Healer, Priest, Parent, Lover
What are the parts of the Working Model for yoga instructors Donna Farhi suggests? 1) Before – assess what, if anything could have been done to prevent or control it
2) During – what sort of responses could be appropriate to control a situation while it is occuring
3) After – what actions be done to rectify or prevent reoccurance
What is one of the most important things a yoga teacher can do to create a safe environment for their students? Clearly define boundaries
What does Asana mean? Asanas are the physical movements of yoga practice and, in combination with Pranayama or breathing techniques constitute the style of yoga referred to as Hatha Yoga
List the 3 anatomical planes. Transverse, Sagittal/Median, Chronal/Frontal
What does the Transverse Plane refer to? The horizontal bi-section of the body, separating the top half from the bottom half at the waist
What does the Sagittal or Median Plane refer to? The vertical bi-section of the body, separating the right side from the left
What does the Frontal or Chronal Plane refer to? The plumbline or central bi-section of the body, separating the anterior (or front) from the posterior (or back)
What is another word for the body's plumbline? Frontal or Chronal anatomical plane
What is a 'Term of Direction'? Words used to describe the relative position of body parts and their movement
In what direction is medial movement? Toward the midline of the body (or limb)
In what direction is lateral movement? Away from the midline of the body (or limb)
What Term of Direction is the opposite of medial? Lateral
What Term of Direction is the opposite of lateral? Medial
What does proximal refer to? Direction or movement toward the center of the body, or toward the attachment point of a limb to the body
What does distal refer to? Direction or movement away from the center of the body, or away from the attachment point of a limb to the body
What Term of Direction is the opposite of proximal? Distal
What Term of Direction is the opposite of distal? Proximal
What does the term posterior refer to? Term of direction that refers to the back of the body
What does the term anterior refer to? Term of direction that refers to the front of the body
What does the term superior refer to? Term of direction that refers to the top of the body
What does the term inferior refer to? Term of direction that refers to the bottom of the body
What is another term for posterior? Dorsal
What is another term for anterior? Ventral
What does the term superficial refer to? Term of direction that refers to close to or on the surface of the body (external)
What does the term deep refer to? Term of direction that refers to further from the surface of the body (internal)
What is another term for superior? Cranial
What is another term for inferior? Caudal
What is a Term of Movement? Words to describe the motion of the body's structures using muscles
What is flexion? Term of Movement that describes a decrease the angle between two parts of the body (e.g., bending the knee)
What is an example of flexion? Bending the elbow or knee
What is extension? Term of Movement that describes an increase in the angle between two parts of the body (e.g., straightening the leg)
What is an example of extension? straightening the leg or arm
What is the opposite of extension? Flexion
What is the opposite of flexion? Extension
What is abduction? Term that describes movement away from the median plane (e.g., lifting the arms away from the body)
What is an example of abduction? Lifting the arms away from the body
What is adduction? Term that describes movement toward the median plane (e.g., moving the arms toward the body)
What is an example of adduction? Moving the arms toward the body
What is the opposite of adduction? Abduction
What is the opposite of abduction? Adduction
What is pronation? Term that describes movement of a body part (e.g., the hand or foot) inward, toward the middle of the body.
What is supination? Term that describes movement of a body part (e.g., the hand or foot) outward away from the middle of the body.
What are you doing if you are lying prone? Lying on your stomach
What are you doing if you are supine? Lying on your back
What is the opposite of prone? Supine
What is the opposite of supine? Prone
In what asanas are you lying prone? Salabasana (locust), Bhujangasana (Cobra), Urdhva Mukha Svanasana (Upward Facing Dog)
In what asana are you lying supine? Savansana, or Corpse Pose
What is inversion? Term to describe elevation of the medial inside edge of a body part (e.g., the foot)
What is eversion? Term to describe elevation of the lateral or outside edge of a body part
What is circumduction? Term to describe circular motion of the limbs
What is rotation? Term to describe motion of the body around an axis (e.g., shoulder joint)
What is medial rotation? Term to describe motion toward the medial plane (e.g., rotating your arm internally, towards your body)
What is lateral rotation? Term to describe motion away from the medial plane (e.g., rotating your arm externally, away from your body)
What is elevation? Term to describe motion up and away from the medial plane (e.g., shrugging one's shoulders)
What is depression? Term to describe motion down and away from the medial plane (e.g., lowering one's jaw)
What is plantarflexion? Term to describe the motion of standing on ones toes
What asana has plantarflexion? Utkatasana (second and third parts)
What is dorsiflexion? Term to describe movement that decreases the angle between the foot and leg
What asana has dorsiflexion? Downward dog
What are the 5 sections of the vertebral column or spine? Cervical, Thorasic, Lumbar, Sacrum, and Coccyx
How many bones make up the cervical spine? 7
How many bones make up the thorasic spine? 12
What is the thorasic spine attached to? The rib cage
How many bones make up the lumbar spine? 5
How many bones make up the sacrum? 5
How many bones make up the coccyx? 3/4 depending on your point of view
What is the coccyx also known as? The tailbone
What is the axial skeleton? The 80 bones that make up the head and trunk of the body
What is the appendicular skeleton? The 126 bones that make most movement possible
Where is the humerus located? The upper arm
Where is the radius located? The lower arm
Where is the ulna located? The lower arm
Name the three bones in the arm. Humerus, radius, and ulna
What is the femur? The upper thigh or leg bone
Where is the tibia located? The lower leg
Where is the fibula located? The lower leg
What is compression? A term that refers to the limit of one's range of motion, due to the size, shape, and position of one's bones.
What is tension? A term that refers to the force that results from muscular contractions – the stretching of muscle and/or connective tissue.
Why is it important to understand the difference between compression and tension? Because each person's bone structure is different, all joints compress at different angle of flexion and extension. Yoga can help students understand where they can safely move without causing injury.
What is the most flexible part of the spine? The thorasic section
Is the cervical spine primarily convex or concave? Concave
Is the thorasic spine primarily convex or concave? Convex
Is the lumbar spine primarily convex or concave? Concave
What part of the spine carries the most weight? Lumbar
What is the iliac crest? The top of the hip bones or pelvis.
What is lordosis? An unhealthy bending or curving of the spine, often due to weak abdominal muscles.
What are the 4 major joint types? Ball-and-socket, hinge, gliding or pivot, and saddle
What joint provides the widest range of movement in the body? Ball-and-socket
What type of joint is the shoulder? Ball-and-socket
What type of joint is the hip? Ball-and-socket
What is the simplest joint in the body? Hinge
What type of joint is the elbow? Hinge
What type of joint is the cervical spine? Gliding or pivot
What type of joint is the forearm? Gliding or pivot
What type of joint is the wrist? Gliding or pivot
What type of joint allows movement, primarily sideways, in one direction? Gliding or pivot
What type of joint allows sideways movement in two directions? Saddle
Name a saddle joint. Knee or thumb
What is the Iyengar method? A form of hatha yoga, developed by B.K.S. Iyengar and first introduced in 1966, that teaches that there is a correct way to do each pose, and that every student will one day be able to attain perfect poses through consistent practice.
What is Hot Yoga? Hot Yoga is a series of yoga poses done in a heated room and promotes profuse sweating which rids the body of toxins. It also makes the body very warm, and therefore more flexible.
What is the typical temperature range for Hot Yoga? 95-108F
What is Bikram Yoga? Developed by Bikram Choudhury in 1974, it's a method of Hot Yoga that includes a set series of 26 yoga poses, each of which is performed twice in a single 90 minute class.
What is Power Yoga? Power yoga is a general term used in the West to describe a vigorous, fitness-based approach to vinyasa-style yoga.
What is Kundalini yoga? Kundalini practice focuses on using breathing techniques to tap and draw energy (prana) at the base of the spine up through the body awakening each of the seven chakras.
What is a chakra? In traditional Indian medicine, chakras are energy centers or 'wheels' in the body. A chakra is believed to be a center of activity that receives, assimilates, and expresses life force energy.
What are the seven major chakras in the body? 1) Muladhara or Root; 2) Svadisthana or Sweetness; 3) Manipura or Lustrous Gem; 4) Anahata or Seed; 5) Vishuddhi or Communication; 6) Anja or Perception; 7) Sahasrara or Enlightenment
With which chakras do most major problems occur? The first three
What is the 'Sacred Truth' of the First Chakra? All is One – "I exist."
What is the 'Sacred Truth' of the Second Chakra? Honor One Another – "I feel."
What is the 'Sacred Truth' of the Third Chakra? Honor Oneself – "I can, I will, I do."
What is the 'Sacred Truth' of the Fourth Chakra? Love is Divine Power – "I love."
What is the 'Sacred Truth' of the Fifth Chakra? Surrender Personal Will to Divine Will – "I speak."
What is the 'Sacred Truth' of the Sixth Chakra? Seek Only the Truth – "I see."
What is the 'Sacred Truth' of the Seventh Chakra? Live in the Present Moment – "I know."
What body parts are associated with the First Chakra? Adrenal glands, legs, feet, bones, large intestine, nose
What body parts are associated with the Second Chakra? Ovaries/Prostate, sex organs, bladder, kidneys, tongue
What body parts are associated with the Third Chakra? Pancreas, Adrenal glands, stomach, muscular system, digestive organs
What body parts are associated with the Fourth Chakra? Thalamus, lungs, heart, breasts, arms, hands, skin
What body parts are associated with the Fifth Chakra? Thyroid, throat, mouth, hands, ears, arms
What body parts are associated with the Sixth Chakra? Pineal, eyes
What body parts are associated with the Seventh Chakra? Pituitary, cerebral cortex
Where is the location of the First Chakra? Between the genitals and anus – the perineum or pelvic floor. Also maps to the adrenal glands.
Where is the location of the Second Chakra? Below the navel – the sexual organs.
Where is the location of the Third Chakra? The solar plexus – the pancreas.
Where is the location of the Fourth Chakra? Breastbone – the thymus.
Where is the location of the Fifth Chakra? Throat – the thyroid.
Where is the location of the Sixth Chakra? Point between the eyebrows – the pituitary gland.
Where is the location of the Seventh Chakra? Crown of the head – the pineal.
What bones make up the shoulder? The scapula, clavicle, and humerus
When you rotate your forearm, which bone(s) move? The ulna
What is another name for the shoulder joint? Acromion process
What is another name for the elbow joint? Olecranon process
What does synovial refer to? Synovial can refer to the most common and most movable type of joints in the human body, or to the thick, stringy fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints.
What does synovial fluid do? Synovial fluid reduces friction between the articular cartilage and other tissues in joints to lubricate and cushion them during movement.
What are the major categories of movement synovial joints can do? Abduction, adduction, extension, flexion, and rotation
What bones make up the pelvic bowl? The iliac crest, the sacrum, the coccyx, and the femur
What does the phrase 'your biography becomes your biology' mean? Essentially, that we are the summation of our life's choices and experiences, and that these directly influence our physical and mental health.
What are the main benefits of Savasana (corpse pose)? Returns blood circulation to normal;
Teaches total and complete relaxation;
Reenergizes the body, preparing it for the next posture;
Lines up and activates the 7 major chakras
During a Hot Yoga series, when should you practice Savasana (corpse pose)? 1-2 minutes after standing postures;
10 seconds between floor postures;
3-7 minutes at the end
Are you supine or prone during Savasana (corpse pose)? Supine (on your back, with palms facing upwards)
What modification can you do to relieve back issues in Savasana (corpse pose)? Bend the knees and bring the bottoms of the fee to the floor to release the lower back.
What are the main benefits of Tadasana (mountain pose)? Integrate new information from the previous posture into the nervous system;
Opens in the front torso, shoulders, chest, and neck;
Improves posture, balance, and poise;
Promotes spinal alignment;
Improves muscle tone;
Improves focus
What modification can you do to relieve knee and/or back issues in Tadasana (mountain pose)? Move the heels 1-2 thumb-widths apart to relieve pressure on the knees and/or lower back
During a Hot Yoga series, when should you practice Tadasana (mountain pose)? 8-12 seconds between standing postures
What does the word ardha mean? Half
What does the word chandra mean? Moon
What modification can you do to relieve back issues in postures that include backbends, such as Ardha Chandrasana (half moon pose)? Keep hands in prayer when bending forward;
Keep your inner thighs engaged;
Place hands on the lower back, fingers facing downward, when back-bending, or
Stretch arms and hands to the ceiling with no back bending
What modification can you do to relieve neck issues in postures that include backbends, such as Ardha Chandrasana (half moon pose)? For postures where arms are extended overhead, keep biceps in contact with the ears, NOT dropping the head backwards, and/or
Place the hands on the back of the neck and gently bend head backwards, stopping before pain is felt
What are the key benefits of Ardha Chandrasana (half moon pose)? Strengthens all muscles of the abdomen
Trims waist and hips
Increases flexibility of the spine;
Opens up all energy channels;
Improves posture;
Increases circulation and respiration;
Encourages proper kidney function
What are the key benefits of Pada-Hastasana (feet to hands pose)? Increases circulation and respiration;
Encourages proper kidney function
What are the postures typically included in the Sun Salutation (Surya Namaskara) series? Tadasana, Standing Forward Bend, Rag Doll, Runner's Lunge, Plank or High-Push-up, Low Push-up, Upward Facing Dog, and Downward Facing Dog
What are the key benefits of Surya Namaskara (sun salutation series)? Incorporates all systems of the body;
Works 100% of the spine;
Oxygenates the entire body;
Strengthens all muscle groups;
Increases circulation;
Warms and prepares the body for additional asanas
What modification can you do to relieve back issues in during sun salutation? Lower back knee to the floor during Runner's Lunge;
Keep knees bent during Downward Facing Dog
What are the three types of Pranayama breathing we practice in Hot Yoga? Ujjayi, Kapalbhati Blowing, and Anulom Viloma
What does prana mean? Life-force
What are the major benefits of the Ujjayi (deep) form of Pranayama Breathing? Strengthens the nervous and digestive systems;
Oxygenates and heats the body, preparing the muscles for action;
Uses 100% of the lungs;
Brings focus to the body and makes one aware of the power of the breath
What modification can you do to relieve neck issues in during the Ujjayi (deep) form of Pranayama Breathing? Interlace the fingers behind the head and raise and lower elbows to the point of tension
What modification can you do to relieve shoulder issues in during the Ujjayi (deep) form of Pranayama Breathing? Let arms hang by your side and just breathe deeply in and out
How many repetitions of Ujjayi (deep) Pranayama Breathing are recommended in the Hot Yoga series warm up? 8-10
What are the major benefits of the Kapalbhati Blowing (stomach breathing) form of Pranayama Breathing? Strengthens abdominal organs;
Increases circulation;
Trims waistline;
Rids the body of toxins and lactic acid
How many repetitions of Kapalbhati Blowing (stomach breathing) are recommended in the Hot Yoga series? 2 sets of 60 fast or 30 slow, or a combination of the two
What is the uddiyana bandha? The abdominal lock, one of the three internal locks or bandhas described and employed in Hatha Yoga.
How do you exercise your uddiyana bandha? After exhaling, pull the abdomen in and up under the rib cage using a false inhale while holding the breath (performing the same action of an inhale without actually pulling any air into the body) and then releasing the abdomen after a pause
What is a bandha? Bandha is a focused and intentional action involving pressure, contraction or force on the muscles or some other bodily or sensate phenomena. In yogic traditions, bandha are to be studied, maintained and held principally whilst engaged in pranayama.
What is the mulabandha? A posture where the body from the anus to the navel is contracted and lifted up and towards the spine. Mula Bandha is the principal, key and primary Bandha of the Yogic Traditions.
What is the jalandhara bandha? The chin lock, one of the three internal locks or Bandhas described and employed in Hatha Yoga. It is performed by dropping the head slightly so that the chin is tucked close to the chest and the tongue pushes up against the palate in the mouth.
What is Uttanasana? Standing forward bend
What are the main benefits of Uttanasana? Stretches the lower back and hamstrings;
Helps harmonize the brain chemistry
What are the main benefits of the Rag Doll pose? Releases the back of your body;
Awakens the body's biochemistry;
Revitalizes the nervous system and helps to create hormonal harmony
What does mukha mean? Face
What are the main benefits of Urdhva Mukha Uttanasana (halfway lift)? Tones the abdominal obliques;
Stretches the lower back and hamstrings;
Elongates the spine;
What does Danda mean? Stick
What are the main benefits of the High Push-up or Plank (Dandasana) pose? Integrates the union between the upper and lower body;
Strengthens the legs, chest, shoulders and abdominals
Where should your wrists and hands be in the High Push-up or Plank (Dandasana) pose? Under and slightly behind your shoulders
What Chaturanga Dandasana? Literally Four-legged stick, it is the low push-up position
What are the main benefits of the Low Push-up (Chaturanga Dandasana) pose? Stabilizes the whole body;
Encourages the entire musculature of the body;
Strengthens the legs, chest, shoulders and abdominals
What modification can you do to relieve back issues in dandasana postures? Bring knees to the floor, which keeping back straight
What is Urdhva Mukha Svanasana? Upward Facing Dog posture
What are the main benefits of the Upward Facing Dog (Urdhva Mukha Svanasana) pose? Stretches the entire front of the body;
Strengthens the muscles of the shoulders, upper back, and arms;
Opens the chest
What is Adho Mukha Svanasana? Downward Facing Dog posture
What are the main benefits of the Downward Facing Dog (Adho Mukha Svanasana) pose? Calms the nervous system;
Decompresses the spine;
Tones and strengthens the arms;
Opens the shoulders;
Opens the arches of the feet;
Sculpts and lengthens the thighs
What does Adho mean? Down
What are the main benefits of Warrior I (Virabhadrasana I) pose? Stretches the chest and lungs, shoulders and neck, belly, groins (psoas);
Strengthens the shoulders and arms, and the muscles of the back;
Strengthens and stretches the thighs, calves, and ankles

What precautions should you take when instructing the Warrior I (Virabhadrasana I) pose? Students with shoulder problems should keep their raised arms parallel (or slightly wider than parallel) to each other.
Students with neck problems should keep their head in a neutral position and not look up at the hands
What are the main benefits of Warrior II (Virabhadrasana II) pose? Strengthens and stretches the legs and ankles;
Stretches the groins, chest and lungs, shoulders;
Stimulates abdominal organs;
Increases stamina;
Relieves backaches, especially through second trimester of pregnancy
What precautions should you take when instructing the Warrior II (Virabhadrasana II) pose? Students with neck problems should not turn your head to look over the front hand; continue to look straight ahead with both sides of the neck lengthened evenly
What are the main benefits of the Standing Separate Leg, Head to Knee (Dandyamana Biphaktapada Janushirasana) pose? Stimulates thyroid and pineal gland;
Stimulates the pancreas, kidney, liver, and spleen;
Improves memory;
Regulate blood sugar balance
What are the main benefits of the Standing Head to Knee (Dandyamana Janushirasana) pose? Improves concentration and focus;
Helps reduce diabetes;
Lengthens and strengthens the back muscles;
Stimulates digestive muscles;
Works the arm and leg muscles
What are the main benefits of the Standing Separate Leg Stretch (Dandyamana Biphaktapada Pachimottanasana) pose? Helps cure sciatica;
Stimulates the digestive organs;
Improves hip and pelvis flexibility;
Increases circulation to the brain and adrenal glands
What are the main benefits of the Standing Bow Pulling (Dandyamana Dhanurasana) pose? Stimulates the heart and lungs;
Improves flexibility of the spine;
Helps improve the digestive system;
Helps reduce abdominal fat;
Improves concentration, patience, and focus
What are the main benefits of the Awkward (Utkatasana) poses? Aligns the skeletal system;
Relieves arthritis of the knee, sciatica, gout;
Helps correct menstrual disorders;
Stimulates the liver and intestines;
Improves cirulcation in the hips;
Improves concentration
What are the main benefits of the Eagle (Garudasana) pose? Opens 12 major joints;
Flushes out the lymphatic system;
Improves balance;
Improves sexual energy
What are the main benefits of the Balancing Stick (Tulandandasana) pose? Works the heart muscle;
Strengthens and improves flexibility of the spinal muscles
What are the main benefits of the Tree (Vrksasana) pose? Improves posture and balance;
Creates calmness;
Improves concentration
What are the main benefits of the Thunderbolt (Utkatasana) pose? Increases the heart rate;
Stimulates the metabolic and circulatory systems;
Engages all the leg muscles
Where is the acromion process? The shoulder
How many chakras are there? Possibly limitless, but there are 7 major ones which run from the base of the spine up to the crown of the head with which we are mostly concerned.
What gland(s) is associated with the Second Chakra? The sexual organs – for women, the ovaries and for men, the testis
What gland is associated with the Third Chakra? The pancreas
What gland is associated with the Fourth Chakra? The thymus
What gland is associated with the Fifth Chakra? The thyroid
What gland is associated with the Sixth Chakra? The pituitary
What gland is associated with the Seventh Chakra? The pineal
With which chakras do most physical, emotional, and spiritual issues with people occur? The first three – root, sexual, and solar plexus
What is connective tissue? A category of tissue that holds together the organs (areola or loose tissue), the ligaments and tendons (elastic), the lymphatic system (reticular or collagen type III), and adipose (cushioning, thermal insulation, lubrication, and energy storage)
Is Shiva primarly associated with Yin or Yang energy? Shiva 'the Destroyer' is primarily associated with Yang energy
What is symbolic site? According to Carolyn Myss in 'Anatomy of the Spirit', it is "a way of seeing and understanding yourself, other people, and life event in terms of universal archetypal patterns", which give you objective models to recognize the 'hidden' meaning in things.
In traditional Hindu beliefs, who is Chakti? The earth mother, or the Yin to Shiva's Yang
Is healing passive or active? Active
Why is curing passive? It is something someone else (ostensibly a Western-educated and trained medical practioner) does to you, rather than something you perform from within. Curing treats the syptoms, rather than the underlying causes of illnesses.
What does shanti mean? Peace
What poses work all the chakras? Tadasana (mountain pose) and Savasana (corpse pose)
What are the 5 major muscles of respiration? 1) internal intercostals; 2) external intercostals; 3) diaphram; 4) levatores costarum; 5) transversus thoracis
Where are the intercostal (repiratory) muscles located? In the spaces between the ribs, arranged in two layers (internal and external). The intercostals serve to hold together and preserve the shape of the rib cage.
Where are the levatores costarum (respiratory) muscles located? From the transverse process of a thorasic vertebra to the tubercle of a rib located 1-2 levels below. The levatores costarum assist in the rotation of the spine and/or elevation of the ribs, depending on which end is fixed.
What is the main job of the internal and external intercostal (respiratory) muscles? The intercostals serve to hold together and preserve the shape of the rib cage.
What is the main job of the internal and external levatores costarum (respiratory) muscles? The levatores costarum assist in the rotation of the spine and/or elevation of the ribs, depending on which end is fixed.
Where is the transversus thoracis (respiratory) muscle located? From the posterior (rear) surface of the lower sternum and xiphoid process, running superior (upwards) to insert on the cartilages of ribs 2 through 6. The transversus thoracis contracts to lower the ribs, assisting in expiration.
What is the main job of the transversus thoracis (respiratory) muscle? The transversus thoracis contracts to lower the ribs, assisting in expiration.
What is the primary muscle of respiration? The diaphram
Where is the diaphram located? Between the inferior (lower) end of the rib cage – the thorax – and the abdomen.
What are the four main accessory muscles of respiration? 1) Pelvic floor; 2) rectus abdominis; 3) major and minor psoas; 4) transversus abdominis
Where is the transversus abdominis located? Also known as the transverse abdominal muscle, it is a muscle layer of the anterior and lateral abdominal wall which is just deep to (layered below) the internal oblique muscle. It is thought to be a major muscle of the functional core of the human body.
Where is the rectus abdominis located? The rectus abdominis muscle is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen.
What is another name for the pelvic floor? Perineum
What does mahabandha refer to? A state in which all three bandhas – mulabandha (pelvic floor), uddiyana bandha (transversus), and jalandhara bandha (throat) – are engaged.
When all three bandhas are engaged, it is called what? Mahabandha
What postures activate the jalandhara, or throat, bandha? Savasana, Dandyamana-Biphaktapada-Janushirasana (Standing Separate Leg Head to Knee), Janushirasana with Paschimotthanasana (Head to Knee and Full Forward Stretch). Basically, any posture that asks you to bring your chin to your chest.
Which bandha is the easiest to activate? The throat bandha – jalandhara bandha.
What are the main benefits of the Prayer Twist (Parivrtta Utkatasana)? Detoxifies the body
'Rings out' the spine
Increases the strength and flexibility of the deeper muscles and connective tissue of the sides of the body
What are the main benefits of the Pavanamuktasana (wind-removing pose)? Cures and prevents flatulence
Massages the ascending (right), descending (left), and transverse colon
Stretches the spine
Works the biceps and triceps
Overall stress reduction
What does mula mean? Root
What are the main benefits of the Pilates Sit-up? Strengthens the abdominal muscles
Improve flexibility of the spine
What are the main benefits of the Bhujangasana (cobra pose)? Improves strength and flexibility of the lower third of the spine
Relieves menstrual cramps
Opens the heart and throat chakras
Helps prevent sciatica
What does Bhujangasana mean? Cobra pose
What are the main benefits of the Salabasana (locust pose)? Works the upper 1/3 of the spine
Helps with gout, slipped disc, sciatica, tennis elbow, and carpal tunnel syndrome
Firms the buttocks and hips
What are the main benefits of the Porna Salabasana (full locust pose)? Works the middle 1/3 of the spine
Firms the muscles of the abdomen, arms, hips, thighs, and shoulders
Opens the throat and heart chakras
What is Dhanurasana? Bow pose
What are the main benefits of the Dhanurasana (bow pose)? Improves digestion
Works the entire spine
Massages the large and small intestines and the liver, kidney, and spleen
What are the main benefits of the Supta-Vajrasana (reclining hero pose)? Helps relieve sciatica, gout, and rheumatism in the legs
Stretches and lengthens the abdomen
Stretches the entire front of the body
When should you NOT attempt Supta-Vajrasana (reclining hero pose)? DO NOT perform this pose unless you can sit your buttocks relatively easily on the floor between your feet.
What are the main benefits of the Ardha Kurmasana (half tortoise pose)? Encourages maximum relaxation
Helps prevent indigestion
Stretches lower lungs
Increases blood circulation to the brain
Increases flexibility of the hips, knees, and ankles
Helps relieve migraines
What are the main benefits of Ustrasana (camel pose)? Stretches the entire front of the body, the ankles, thighs and groins, abdomen and chest, and throat
Stretches the deep hip flexors (psoas)
Strengthens back muscles
Improves posture
Works the thyroid/parathyroid (throat and heart chakras)
What is another term for psoas? Hip flexors
What modifications to camel pose (Ustrasana) should you do if you have neck or back problems? Keep your hands on your hips for the entire posture or
Interlace your fingers behind your back, bring your shoulders back and lift the sternum, gently letting your head drop back and lifting out of your lower spine towards the ceiling
What modification to camel pose (Ustrasana) should you do if you cannot reach your heels? Come up onto the toes to raise the heels closer to the arms
What are the main benefits of Sasangasana (rabbit pose)? Maximizes spine extension
Stimulates the nervous system
Helps with digestion
Works the thyroid/parathyroid glands
Helps clear the sinuses
Helps improve flexibility of the scapula and trapezius muscles
What are the main benefits of Janushirasana with Paschimottanasana (Head to knee and hands to feet pose)? Helps balance blood sugar
Improves flexibility of the sciatica, ankles, knees, and hips
Helps improve digestion
Works the liver, spleen, and kidneys
Increases flexibility of the trapezius, deltoids, triceps, and lumbar spine
What modifications to Janushirasana with Paschimottanasana (Head to knee and hands to feet pose) should you do if you have tight hips and knees? Extend your left leg out toward the front
Place the left foot underneath the right thigh
What modifications to Janushirasana with Paschimottanasana (Head to knee and hands to feet pose) should you do if you have tight hamstrings and lower back issues? Grab on to your calves or ankles
What are the main benefits of Ardha Matsyendrasana (spine twist or half Lord of the Fishes pose)? Increases circulation and nutrition to the spine
Improves spinal elasticity
Firms the abs, thighs, buttocks
What are the main benefits of Matsyasana (fish pose)? Stretches the deep hip flexors and the intercostals
Stretches and stimulates the muscles of the belly and front of the neck
Stretches and stimulates the organs of the belly and throat
Strengthens the muscles of the upper back and back of the neck
What modification to Ardha Matsyendrasana (spine twist or half Lord of the Fishes pose) should you do if you have back issues? Keep one leg straight
What color is most often associated with muladhara (root chakra)? Red
What color is most often associated with svadhishthana (navel chakra)? Orange
What color is most often associated with manipura (solar plexus chakra)? Yellow
What colors is most often associated with anahata (heart chakra)? Green or Pink
What color is most often associated with vishuddhi (throat chakra)? Blue
What color is most often associated with anja (eyebrow or 'third-eye' chakra)? Indigo
What color is most often associated with sahasrara (crown of the head chakra)? Violet
What anatomical plane cuts vertically through the body from anterior (front) to posterior (back), dividing the body into right and left halves? The sagittal plane
What anatomical plane of the body passes vertically through the body, dividing it into anterior and posterior sections? The frontal or coronal plane
What anatomical plane cuts the body into horizontal cross sections, dividing it into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) halves? The transverse plane
As a yoga instructor, why is it important to be able to describe the body in terms of anatomical planes? Thinking of the body in terms of anatomical planes give you and your students a commonly recognized frame of reference for describing movement and direction. Anatomical planes can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help students correct postures.
Describe the standard body position, or anatomical position, used as a frame of reference for direction in anatomy. Upright standing position, with arms hanging by the sides, palms facing forwards.
What yoga postures correspond to the anatomical (or standard body) position in anatomy? Tadasana (standing) and savasana (lying).
What lower arm bone can be described as medial? The ulna
What lower arm bone can be described as lateral, or able to move in a lateral direction? The radius
What lower leg bone can be described as medial? The tibia
What lower leg bone can be described as lateral, or able to move in a lateral direction? The fibula
What two main Terms of Direction are involved when the body moves along the frontal plane? Medial and lateral
On what anatomical plane does the body move when moving medially or laterally? The frontal plane
What two main Terms of Direction are involved when the body moves along the sagittal plane? Proximal and distal
On what anatomical plane does the body move when moving proximally or distally? The sagittal plane
Is the rectus abdominis more superficial or deep? Superficial
Name a yoga posture that emphasizes lateral flexion. Ardha Chandrasana, or half-moon posture.
Parivrtta Janusirasana, or revolved head-to-knee pose
Name a yoga posture that emphasizes flexion at the hips. Pada hastasana, or hands-to-feet.
What is protraction? Movement forward in the transverse plane (e.g., rounding of the shoulder forward and away from the trunk).
What is retraction? Movement backward in the transverse plane (e.g., pulling the shoulders back, squeezing the scapulas together).
What are the major terms of movement that describe Uttanasana (Standing Forward Bend)? Flexion and internal rotation
What are the major terms of movement that describe Garudasana (Eagle pose)? Adduction and flexion
What are the major terms of movement that describe Trikonasana (Triangle Pose)? Abduction and external rotation
What are the major terms of movement that describe Vrksasana (Tree Pose)? Adduction and abduction
True or false – skeletal muscles make up roughly 60% of the total human body weight. False – on average, skeletal muscles account for approximately 40% of the weight of the human body.
What is the primary function of skeletal muscles? To produce movement through their ability to contract and relax in a coordinated manner.
The place where a muscle attaches to a relatively stationary point on the bone is called what? The origin.
A muscle's origin refers to what? The relatively stationary point on a bone where the muscle, either directly or by tendons, attaches to it.
The end of the muscle that attaches to the bone that moves when the muscles contracts is called what? The insertion.
The insertion of a muscle refers to what? The point of the muscle that attaches to the bone and causes motion when the muscle contracts.
What is muscle facia? Connective tissue surrounding the muscle.
What is a tendon? Generally speaking, it's the connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
True or false – every muscle has two, and only two, attachments, one at each end. False – although most muscles have only one origin and one insertion, some complex muscles, such as the biceps and triceps in the arm, have multiple attachments or heads (two and three, respectively).
What does the term isometric refer to? Muscle contraction that results in no movement.
What is an example of isometric contraction? Biceps contracting to hold a load in a stationary position.
What does the term isotonic refer to? Muscle contraction that results in motion, such as bending the knee.
In concentric muscle contraction, the muscle attachments move… …closer together, causing movement at the joint.
In eccentric muscle contraction, the muscle attachments move… …away from each other in a controlled (usually) manner.
What are the four major functional groups into which muscles are categorized? Prime mover or agonist; antagonist; synergist; and fixator.
What does a Prime Mover muscle do? It contracts to produce a specific movement, such the bicep contracting to produce elbow flexion.
What is the primary function of the antagonist muscle? It relaxes to allow the prime mover to contract.
Where is the antagonist muscle located in relation to the prime mover muscle? The antagonist muscle is located on the opposite side of a joint to the prime mover.
What does a synergist muscle do? It prevents unwanted movements that might occur as the prime mover contracts, especially sideways movements that would compromise a joint.
What is a fixator muscle? Also called a stabilizer, the fixator immobilizes the bone of the prime mover, providing a stable base for the action of the prime mover.
Where is the erector spinae located? Deep along the spine, crom the sacrum to the top of the cervicle spine.
What is the basic function of the erector spinae? To keep the back straight.
What asana helps stretch the erector spinae? Basically, any anasana that brings the knees to the chest. Jathara parivrittasana, or floor spine twist, and Pavana Muktasana, or wind removing posture (transverse colon part).
Where is the multifidus? Deep along the spine.
Where are the intercostals located? In between and around the rib cage.
Where is the diaphragm located? Beneath the rib cage, above the navel.
True or false – the diaphragm is responsible for roughly 60% of your breathing capacity. True.
What three muscle groups are primarily responsible for breathing capacity? The intercostals, the diaphragm, and the transversus abdominis.
What three actions must occur to move a bone at the joint? 1) One or more sets of muscles must contract (prime mover);
2) Another set of muscles must release (antagonist);
3) A third set of muscles must stabilize (synergists/fixers)
When there is limited movement in a yoga posture, what might be happening to the group action in the muscles? 1) Anatomical issues at the joint, such as arthritis
2) Stabilizers are not creating a supportive base from which to move
3) Antagonists are too short or too tight
4) Prime Mover and/or Synergists are too weak to bring joint thru its full range of moti
External and Internal intercostals are voluntary or involuntary muscles? For the most part, they are involuntary muscles.
Where are the internal and external obliques located? Along the outside of the trunk of the body.
What is the primary function of the obliques? To compress the abdomen, helping support the lower internal organs and lumbar spine.
Where is the transversus abdominis? From the bottom of the rib cage to the bottom of the iliac crests along the front side of the trunk of the body.
What is the primary function of the transversus abdominis? Helps maintain good posture and assists in forced expiration.
What asana works the diaphragm and the transversus abdominis? Kalabhati blowing.
What is a common name for the rectus abdominis? Six-pack abs 😉
Where is the rectus abdominis located? From the sternum to the pubis, along the front side of the body.
Is the diaphragm a deep or superficial muscle? Deep
Is the rectus abdominis deep or superficial? Superficial
Is the transversus abdominis deep or superficial? Deep
Name an asana that strengthens the rectus abdominis. Basically, any that involves the 'sit up' movement, such as pilates roll up and boat posture. Other postures that help strengthen abdominal muscles include bhujangasana (cobra), dhanurasana (bow), and upward facing dog.
Where is the quadratus lumborum (QL) located? From the 12th rib to the iliac crest.
What is the quadratus lumborum primarily responsible for? Helping the body bend sideways.
What asana is especially good for stretching and strengthening the quadratus lumborum? Half moon, or Ardha Chandrasana.
Where are the iliopsoas (psoas/iliacus) located? From the first lumbar vertebrae to the lesser trochanter of the femur.
What is a common problem people with chronically tight psoas muscles experience? Lower back pain and lordosis.
Name an asana that strengthens the psoas muscles. Warrior (Virabhadrasana) series, but especially Warrior I.
What is the main job of the psoas muscles? To flex and laterally rotate the thigh, such as when a person kicks a ball. The psoas is responsible for lifting the leg while climbing stairs or walking up an incline.
What are the five primary muscles of the arm and shoulder? 1) trapezius
2) levator scapula
3) pectoralis
4) bicep
5) tricep
Where are the trapezius muscles located? Along the back of the neck, out to the end of the clavicle, and down to the last thoracic vertebrae.
What is the primary job of the trapezius muscle? Helps stabilize and enable movement around the acromion process.
People with tight trapezius muscles sometimes experience what sort of pain? Headaches and neck pain.
What asanas help stretch and strengthen the trapezius muscles? Any twist that includes the neck, such as seated floor twist.
What can you do to release the trapezius muscles when in an asana that includes the arms extending out from the shoulder parallel to the floor, such as Warrior II? Turn the palms to the ceiling/upwards, and then back into facedown position.
Where is the levator scapulae located? Right side of the top certicle vertebrae, down to the border of the scapula, just above the spine. Essentially, the side of the neck.
Where are the rhomboids located? From the first thoracic vertebrae to the inside border of the scapula.
What is the primary movement of the rhomboids? Pulling something toward you.
When someone says their shoulder blades ache, what muscles could be the cause? The rhomboids.
Where are the pectoralis muscles located? The chest. These are the superficial muscles of the chest.
Where are the latissimus dorsi located? From the bottom border of the scapula to the base of the sacrum, along the back of the body.
What is the basic functional movement of the latissimus dorsi? Pushing on the arms of a chair to stand up.
What asana stretches and strengthens the latissimus dorsi? Any forward bend, but especially Uttasana and Rag Doll.
Where are the deltoids located? On top of the shoulder.
Where are the biceps brachii located? Along the front of the bone of the upper arm (humerus).
What is the primary functional movement of the bicep? Picking up an object.
When the bicep is chronically tight, what can't a person do? Straigten his/her arms. The elbow cannot be fully straightened.
What is the antagonist of the bicep brachii? The tricep brachii.
Where is the tricep brachii located? Along the back of the bone of the upper arm (humerus).
What action are the biceps and triceps mostly concern with? Flexing and extending the elbow joint.
Where are your glutes? The buttox. Technically, the posterior area of the femur.
What action is the gluteus maximus primarily involved with? Walking. Any motion that extends and laterally rotates the hip joint.
What asana helps stretch and strengthen the gluteus maximus? Floor twist.
What is another name for the tensor fasciae latae? IT band.
What is a common issue some people experience with their IT bands (tensor fasciae latae)? Pelvic imbalances, leading to chronic pain in the hips, lower back, and lateral area of the knees.
Where are the piriformis muscles located? Internal (front) surface of the sacrum to the top of the femur.
What is the primary function of the piriformis? Laterally (outward) rotates the hip. Abducts the thigh when the hip is flexed and helps hold the head of the femur in its socket.
What nerve do issues with the piriformis most affect? The sciatic nerve (ouch).
What asana is good for stretching and strengthening the piriformis? Thread the needle posture (lying on the back with one ankle over the opposite knee, working the bent knee toward the trunk).
How many hamstring muscles are there? Three
The hamstrings are the antagonists of which opposite set of muscles? The quadriceps.
With the quadriceps, what joints are the hamstrings primarily concerned with moving? The knee (flexion) and hip (extension).
What muscles make up the group called adductors? Psoas, adductor magnus/brevis/longus, sartorius, gracilis, and pectineus.
What do the adductors do? Adduct and laterally rotate the hip joint.
What is a common problem with the adductors, especially the sartorius? Groin pulls.
How many muscles make up the quadriceps? Four (quad)
What movement are the quadriceps primarily concerned with? Extending the knee joint and flexing the hip joint. The basic act of walking and running.
What asana stretches the quadriceps? Supta Vajrasana, or reclining hero posture.
What are the four major muscles of the neck and head? Masseter, temporalis, scalenus, and sternocleidomastoideus (sterno)
Where is the masseter? Cheek; this muscles is responsible for chewing and clenching the teeth.
Where is the temporalis? From the temple to the upper jaw. Works with the masseter to clench the teeth and chew food.
Where are the scalenus muscles located? From the top of the cervicle spine to the collar bone.
What do the scalenus help with? Inhalation.
What motion are the scalenus muscles concerned with? Laterally flexing and rotating the neck.
How many scalenus muscles are there? Three: medius, anterior, and posterior.
Where is the sternocleidomastoideus located? From the base of the skull to the sternum.
What basic motion is the sternocleidomastoideus primarily concerned with? Turning the head to look over the shoulder.
Name the 4 DESA behavior types. Dominant, Expressive, Solid, and Analytic.
Which DESA behavior type makes sure family, friends, and all parties involved are considered before making an important decision? Solid
Which DESA behavior type tends to interrupt and be quick-thinking? Dominant
Which 2 DESA behavior types tend to move from details to the big picture? Solid and Analytic
Which DESA behavior type loves social events and high-energy people? Expressive
Which DESA behavior type would not respond well to the statement "just trust me"? Analytic
Which DESA behavior type responds well to statements such as "the bottom-line" and "let me sum it up to save time"? Dominant
True or false – people who rank high on the Expressive scale in the DESA behavior analysis tend to speak quickly. True
Why is it important to know a thing or two about behavior/personality types when teaching yoga? As the instructor, it's important to recognize different people approach and want to realize different things from their practice, and therefore one should develop a teaching style that encompasses the needs of all types (as much as possible).
The primary function of skeletal (voluntary) muscles are to: a) produce movement; b) transmit tension to the bone across a joint; c) make up 40% of the total human body weight. a) produce movement
What is the difference between the origin and the insertion of a muscle? The origin is where the muscle and/or connective tissue attaches to the bone at a relatively stationary point; the insertion is the end of the muscle (or tendon) attached to the bone that moves.
Connective tissue (also called muscle facia), extending off the end of a muscle is called: a) muscle bundles; b) tendons; c) an isotonic contraction. b) tendons
What structure helps attach or secure muscle to the bone, cartilage, or other muscles? Tendons
When a muscle contracts, does it always bring its attachments closer together? No
True or False – in Chaturanga, where the arms and biceps are stationary but hold the body in the plank position, the muscles are engaged in isometric contraction. True
True or False – in Warrior II posture, the knee moving into position can be described as isotonic movement. True – any posture involving movement created by muscles contracting (prime mover flexion) or releasing (antagonist extension) is isotonic.
Concentric and eccentric contractions specify: a) fixator movement; b) range of motion; c) types of isotonic movements. c) types of isotonic movements
What muscle is the Prime Mover of knee flexion? The hamstrings
What muscle is the Antagonist of elbow flexion? The triceps brachii
What muscles are working as fixators on the scapula when doing Downward Dog? The supraspinatus muscles
What inner thigh muscle is working as a synergist when doing Downward Dog? The sartorius
What is happening to the group action of our muscles when there is "muscular tension"? a) the prime mover is weak; b) the antagonist weak; c) the synergist cannot stabilize; d) the fixator cannot provide a stable base for the prime mover's action All of the above
What muscles produces 60% of your breathing capacity? The diaphragm
Where is the quadratus lumborum located? Between the iliac crest and the 12th rib
What asanas stretch the psoas? Warrior II and Standing Head to Knee (dandyamana janushirasana)
The piriformis laterally rotates the hip joint (outward rotation). What asana would help to stretch is out (inwardly rotate the hip)? Sucinasana (threading the kneedle posture); Ardha Matsyendrasana (seated floor twist); Eka Pada Kapotasana (pigeon and half pigeon); Supta Vajrasana (reclining hero)
How many hamstrings are there? 3
What muscle is the Prime Mover engaged in Uddiyana Bandha? The transverse abdominis
What is a dosha? According to Ayurveda, the unique mix of three mind/body principles which creates our specific mental and physical characteristics.
What are the three doshas? The three doshas are known as: Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Vata relates primarily to air/space; Pitta to fire/water; and Kapha to earth/water.
According to ayurvedic philosophy, what 4 major issues cause suffering? 1) Parinama or change; 2) Tapa or unmet expectations; 3) Samskara or patterns/habits; 4) Guna, or natural processes, imbalance
What is ayurveda? Ayurveda is India’s 5,000 year old “Science of Life” and it is the art of living in harmony with nature.
What does guna refer to? Literally translated as 'string' in Sanskrit, according to Samkhya philosophy, there are three major 'processes' that serve as the fundamental operating principles or 'tendencies' of prakriti, or nature. These are: rajas, tamas, and satva.
What processes do rajas, tamas, and satva correspond to? Raja – creation; satva – preservation; tamas – destruction.
What does dukkha refer to? Dukkha roughly corresponds to a number of terms in English including suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness, sorrow, affliction, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress, misery, and frustration.
What does prakriti refer to? According to the Bhagavad Gita, the basic nature of intelligence by which the Universe exists and functions. It is made up of the three gunas – rajas, satva, and tamas – which are tendencies or modes of operation that govern each person's daily balance.
With what attributes is Satva commonly associated? Satva encompasses qualities of goodness, light, and harmony.
With what attributes is Rajas commonly associated? Rajas is associated with concepts of energy, activity, ambition, and passion; so that, depending on how it is used, it can either have a supportive or hindering effect on the evolution of the soul.
With what attributes is Tamas commonly associated? Tamas is commonly associated with inertia, darkness, insensitivity.
What is Purusa? In Hinduism, Purusha (Sanskrit puru?a, ????? "man, Cosmic man", in Sutra literature also called pu?s "man") is the "self" which pervades the universe.
Who is Parvati? The second consort of Shiva, Parvati, also called Kali, is the Hindu goddess of fertility, marital felicity, devotion to the spouse, asceticism, and power.
Who is Saraswati? The consort of Brahma and the Hindu goddess of is the goddess of knowledge, music and the arts.
Who is Laxmi? The consort of Vishnu and the Hindu goddess of wealth, prosperity, light, wisdom, fortune, fertility, generosity and courage; and the embodiment of beauty, grace and charm.
Who is Shiva? A member of the Hindu Trimurti or aspects of the Divine, Shiva, also called 'The Destroyer, is the Hindu god of invincibility, might, and terror, as well as a figure of honor, delight, and brilliance.
Who is Brahma? Brahma, also called the Creator, is the Hindu god (deva) of creation and one of the Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva.
Who is Vishnu? Vishnu, also known as the Preserver, is the Hindu god of knowledge.
What is transference? Transference refers to the way in which a yoga student or client may invoke feelings or emotions on their yoga instructor.
What is counter-transference? Counter-transference refers to the way a yoga instructor may project feelings or emotions on to a student.
Why is it important to understand and recognize behaviors such as projection, adoration, and emulation as indicators of student-teacher transference and counter-transference? To create a safe environment in which to practice yoga, the instructor should recognize and contain any behavior that may unhealthily cross the boundary between student and teacher.
Name 3 ways, according to Donna Farhi, that a yoga teacher can create a safe and positive container for their students. 1) Beginning and ending class on time; 2) limiting questions to those that are relevant to the present inquiry or time; 3) holding steadfast to the purpose of the practice.
Who wrote 'Peace is Every Step'? Thich Nhat Hanh.
What are 'Bells of Mindfulness'? According to Thich Nhat Hanh, bells can be used to remind us to stop talking, stop our thinking, and return to ourselves, breathing in and out and smiling.
What is involution? According to Iyengar, involution is the union of body, mind, and spirit that occurs through the full expression of yoga practice. It's a 'turning inward' to realize the Self, or atman.
What does the term dharma refer to? Dharma is the search for eduring ethical principles and the cultivation of 'right' behavior in physical, moral, mental, psychological, and spiritual dimensions. It's following the 8 Limb Path.
What are the main actions of the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS)? The actions of the PSNS (the "Brake", as opposed to the sympathetic nervous system ("The Accelerator") are summarized by the phrases "rest and repose" or "rest and digest" (in contrast to the "fight-or-flight" of the sympathetic nervous system).
What is a Kosha? Also called a 'Sheath of Being', these are 5 different levels of existance which yoga identifies and which must be in harmony for a person to achieve true health and happiness.
What are the 5 Koshas, or Yogic Sheaths of Being? Annamaya, or outermost physical body; Pranamaya, or energetic body; Manomaya, or mental/emotional body; Vijnanmaya, or intellectual body; and Anandamaya, or blissful body.
According to Iyengar, what is the purpose of yoga practice? Practicing yoga teaches us to live fully – physically and spiritually – by cultivating each of the kosha (or sheaths) so as to discover our inner, immortal Self.
What does the term prakriti refer to? Prakriti is human consciousness.
What was Pattabhi Jois? A contemporary of Iyengar, Indra Devi, and Krishnamacharya's son Desikachar, he is commonly accredited with developing the modern form of vinyasa-based yoga, which he called Ashtanga Yoga.
What does the term maya mean? Maya means 'illusion'. It refers to the limitation of 'normal' human consciousness to understand reality as it is, rather than as clouded by individual emotion or experience.
How many aphorisms are there in Patanjali's Yoga Sutras? 196
What is a nadi? According to yoga beliefs, nadis are end points to the network of energy channels in our astral bodies that circulate life force – prana – throughout the body.
How many nadis are there in the astral body? Unknown, but often said to be 72,000.
Name three ways a yoga instructor can teach students in class. Demonstration, words, and touch.
Who is Babaji? Mahavatar Babaji is the name given to an Indian saint by Lahiri Mahasaya and several of his disciples. He is commonly regarded as an avatar of Krishna and appeared to Lahiri initiating him in Kriya yoga and instructing him to initiate others.
Who was Lahiri Mahasaya? An Indian yogi and a disciple of Mahavatar Babaji. He revived the yogic science of Kriya Yoga when he learned it from Mahavatar Babaji in 1861. Lahiri Mahasaya was also the guru of Sri Yukteswar.
Who was Sri Yukteswar? The guru of Paramahansa Yogananda. Sri Yukteswar was a Jyotisha (traditional astrologer), a yogi, and an exponent of the Bhagavad Gita and the Bible.
What does Paramahansa mean? Swan.
Who was Paramahansa Yogananda? Yogananda was an Indian yogi and guru who introduced many westerners to the teachings of meditation and Kriya Yoga through his book, Autobiography of a Yogi.
What was Paramahansa Yogananda birth name? Mukunda Lal Ghosh
What is the Golden Middle Path? In Autobiography of a Yogi, Babaji's vision "East and West must establish a golden middle path of activity and spirituality combined" and that he shared this mission with and through his disciples Sri Yukteswar and Yogananda.
Who is Krishna? The principal avatar, or incarnation, of Vishnu.
Who is Ganesh? A major Hindu deity, worshiped as the remover of obstacles, though traditionally he also places obstacles in the path of those who need to be checked.
What sound is principally associated with Ganesh? Aum
How would you recognize Ganesh? He has the head of an elephant, a big belly, and is often shown riding on or attended by a mouse or rat.
What is the Baghavad Gita? The Bhagavad Gita is considered as one of the most important philosophical classics of the world, and consists of 700 verses in which Krishna elaborates on different Yogic and Vedantic philosophies.
How many bones are there in the body? 206 (or 208, depending on how you view the sacrum and coccyx).
How many muscles are there in the body? Usually considered to be 640, though some anatomical texts put the number between 638 and 800.
What is a yuga, or Age of Mankind? According to Hindu tradition, is the name of an 'epoch' or 'era' within a cycle of four ages. These are the Satya Yuga (or Krita Yuga), the Treta Yuga, the Dvapara Yuga and finally the Kali Yuga.
What is the significance of 2012? According to Hindu tradition, the year 2012 marks the end of a yuga cycle, in which mankind will transition from the current Kali, or Iron, Age to a Satya, or Golden Age. Let's hope so!
What is karma? A Hindu concept which explains causality through a system where beneficial effects are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful effects from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a person's reincarnated lives.
What is moksha? Similar to Nirvana in Buddhism, Moksha (literally "release") is the liberation from samsara, the cycle of death and rebirth or reincarnation and all of the suffering and limitation of worldly existence after realization of God.
What 3 factors must be controlled to manage an effective heated environment for hot yoga? Temperature, humidity, and air movement.
What mechanisms does the body use to cool itself? 1) Triggering sweat glands to bring moisture to the skin's surface, where it evaporates; 2) pumping more blood to the skin, where it hydrates the tissues and helps disseminate heat.
What does the term heat index refer to? The heat index is a combination of air temperature and humidity, and is the apparent temperature the body must manage.
What are some of the key indicators a student is having serious problems with heat? Muscle spasms, blurred vision/dizziness, nausea, reduced movement, weakness.
What does Iyengar mean when he refers to 'Living Between Earth and Sky'? We are creatures of nature, made of physical 'stuff' that changes daily that our innate divine Self must inhabit.
According to Thich Nhat Hanh in 'Peace is Every Step', what is compassion? "A mind that removes the suffering that is present in another." Compassion is the practical application of understanding and love.
What is 'interbeing'? According to Thich Nhat Hanh in 'Peace is Every Step', interbeing is the concept that we are connected to every other living thing, and that we are both affected by and affect them at every moment.
What are some of the key precepts of Thin Nhat Hanh's Order of Interbeing? 1) Do not be bound by any doctrine; 2) do not mistake your knowledge for absolute truth; 3) do not force your views on others; 4) do not avoid suffering; 5) be generous; 6) do not be hateful or angry; 7) live in the now; 8) do not harm others or kill