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unit 4 Terms and definitions

Question Answer
adjunct anaesthetics drugs used in combination with anaesthetic drugs to control the ADE of help maintain the anaesthetic state in the patient
anaesthesia the loss of the ability to feel pain resulting from the administration of an anaesthetic drug
anaesthetics drugs that depress the CNS or peripheral nerves to produce decreased sensation, loss of sensation, or muscle relaxation
balanced anaesthesia the practice of using combinations of different classes of drugs rather than a single drug to produce anaesthesia
general anaesthesia a drug induced state in which CNS nerve impulses are altered to reduce pain and other sensations throughout the entire body.
local anaesthesia state in which peripheral or spinal nerve impulses are altered to reduce or eliminate pain and other sensations in tissues innervated by these nerves
malignant hyperthermia genetically linked major ADE to general anaesthesia characterized by a rapid rise in body temp as well as tachycardia, tachypnea, and sweating
overton-meyer theory a theory that describes the relationship between lipid solubility of anaesthetic drugs and their potency
procedural sedation milder form of general anaesthesia that causes partial or complete loss of consciousness but does not reduce normal respiratory drive
spinal anaesthesia local anaesthesia induced by injection of an anaesthetic drug near the spinal cord to anaesthetize nerves that are distal to the site of injection
spinal or intraspinal anaesthesia drugs are injected into the area near the spinal cord within the vertebral column. two injection techniques:intrathecal and epidural
central – intrathecal anaesthesia drugs injected into the subarachnoid space. used for patients undergoing major abdominal or orthopaedic surgery, c-section
central – epidural anaesthesia drugs are injected via a small catheter into the epidural space without puncturing the dura. used for birth and major abdominal or pelvic pain after s
peripheral – infilatration small amounts of anaesthetic solution are injected into the tissue that surrounds operative site (wound suturing, dental surgery)
peripheral – nerve block injected at the site where a nerve innervates a specific area. allows large amounts of drug to be delivered without affecting the whole body
peripheral – topical anaesthesia drug applied directly onto the surge of the skin, eye, or mucous membrane to relive pain or prevent it from being sensed
local anaesthetics action block both the generation and conduction of impulses through all types of nerve fibres by blocking the movement of certain ions(sodium, potass, calc)
Barbutyarates a class of drugs that are chemically derivatives of barbituric acid. They are used to induce sedation
benzodiazepines a chemical category of drugs most frequently prescribes as anxiolytic drugs and less frequently as sedative-hypnotic agents
Gamma – aminobutyric acid (GABA) primary inhibitor neurotransmitter found in the brain. A key compound affected by sedative, anxiolytic, psychotropic, and muscle relaxing meds.
hypnotics drugs that, when given at low moderate doses, calm or soothe the CNS without inducing sleep but when given at high doses cause sleep
Non- rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep the largest portion of the sleep cycle. It has 4 stages and precedes REM sleep. most of the sleep cycle consists of this
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep one of the stages of the sleep cycle. Some of the characteristics is rapid eye movements, vivid dreams, irregular breathing
REM interference a drug-induced reduction of REM time
REM rebound excessive REM sleep following discontinuation of a sleep-altering drug
sedatives drugs that have an inhibitory effect on the CNS to the degree that they reduce nervousness, excitability and irritability without causing sleep
sedative-hypnotics drugs that can act in the body either as sedatives or hypnotics
sleep transient reversible and periodic state of rest which there is a decrease in physical activity and consciousness
sleep architecture the structure of the various elements involved in the sleep cycle, including normal and abnormal patters of sleep
biogenic amine hypothesis (BAH) postulates that depression results from a deficiency of neuronal and synaptic catecholamines (primarily norepinephrine) and excess of amines at receptor
permissive hypothesis postulates that reduced concentrations of serotonin are the predisposing factor in patients with affective disorders.
dysregulation hypothesis reformulation of BAH. Views depression as a failure of the regulation of the neurotransmitter system