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Test Three Quiz 1301 History

Question Answer
Why did Spain give away Louisiana? 1800 secret Treaty of San lldefonso
Spain gave the Louisiana Territory to France
Spain no longer had the resources to manage Louisiana
Spanish were hoping the French would work as a buffer to keep Americans out of the Spanish Empire
What role does Louisiana play in Napoleon’s plans? French were happy to receive Louisiana to make a new France in the Americas -Plays out well for French
French got a huge piece of old territories they had lost
Why did Jefferson attempt to buy New Orleans?

There were two options buy New Orleans, or take it by force with the British (needs English because our military can’t win against France alone, this will let the British back into America)
so……
Jefferson decided to buy the land from the French
What led Napoleon to sell Louisiana? Napoleon decided to sell all of Louisiana
The reason
Needs Money
Doesn’t want U.S partnering with the British

Pay 15 million for the Louisiana territory

Everyone but the Spanish win

Lewis and Clark Expeditions

1804 to 1806
(over Rockies out to Oregon)
1. All water route to the pacific ?
2. Indians
3. Specimen collection done
4. Map (scientifically establish longitude and latitude)
Zebulon Pike Expeditions 1805 – up the Mississippi River
1. spying on British Canada (where are forts, how many men)
2. indians
3. specimens
4. maps
Second Zebulon Pike Expeditions 1806-1807- across the plains, out to Colorado, down through Mexico.
1. Spying on the Spanish – where Spain’s forts are, what relationship do they have with the indians
2. indians
3. specimens
4. maps
Be familiar with the events that inflamed anti-British feelings in the U.S.

Jefferson is also still dealing with the French and the British
British still control the Atlantic
British still impressing American sailors (even 2 miles off our coastline which is an act of war)

French are still stealing from us- blo

The Embargo Act 1807 Stops all trade with Europe
The US economy tanks by doing this act (largely export based economy)

Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
Trade with all except Britain and France
(economy recovers but we get piracy and impressment again)

Macon’s Bill #2 1810 Open all trade
offer a deal to Britain and France: Recognize US neutrality first we stop trading with your enemy (so Britain 1st we stop trade with France, )
This almost worked, British were probably going to accept
Tecumseh an American Indian from The Great Lakes Region
he was attempting to unite the Indians in the Mississippi Valley into an Indian Confederacy hoping to block white expansion
What was the Prophet’s appeal to Indians in the old NW? His brother Prophet was a religious leader who was attempting to get the Indians to return to their religion and reject the White man’s God and way of life
Battle of Tippecanoe -1811 US tries to break up the Confederation
US versus Tecumseh’s forces
US wins
after battle we were collecting weapons from the dead indians, found the Indians had brand new British manufactured rifles
What final events led to war with Great Britain?

Battle of Tippecanoe- finding out that British are supplying Indians with weapons to kill Americans
Impressment
War of 1812

was a tie between American and British
forgotten as soon as it was over
not really successful
What was Madison's battle plan and why did it fail? was to attack Canada
Lots of indecisive battles along the border- largely a failure even though we burned down Canadian capital
The problem was infrastructure-not very good roads in the interior, won a victory hard to make headway along the roads
How did the war expose sectional differences? War caused sectional differences not everyone wanted to attack Canada
The south want to attack Florida (even though we aren’t at war with Spain)
The West wants to attack Indians
New England doesn’t want a war it is bad for business
What was the British battle plan in 1814? 1814 the British were able to put their full power on the Americans
What is the first phase attack the east Coast
burned down Washington DC, ventured into Chesapeake, attacked Baltimore and other places
our navy had split- so the British Navy could attack anywhere they wanted which led to 2nd phase
What is the second phase? British pushed down out of the Great lakes
huge chunks of what is now Illinois, Michigan, Indiana were captured by the British, set up for 3rd phase
What is the third phase? seize New Orleans
they are trying to control Mississippi from top to bottom and take control of the whole Louisiana Territory
Battle of New Orleans Part One we sent Andrew Jackson to New Orleans
he crushes the Tecumseh rebellion
he attacks the Spanish for good measure
Battle of New Orleans Part Two Jackson builds his defenses to meet the Land route threat that the British decide to take to march on New Orleans
Fatal mistake for British they did not grab the other bank of the river
Battle of New Orleans Part Three lasts about an hour- HUGE victory for United States
Battle of New Orleans has no effect on the War of 1812 because the peace treaty had been signed 3 weeks earlier (Treaty of Ghent)
Treaty of Ghent Dec 24 1814
not much to it-everyone wanted to end it quickly
the centerpiece of Treaty:
"Status Quo ante bellum"
(which means everything goes back to the way it was before the war)
Convention of 1818 Treaty 1. sets a border for the Canada Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel
2. Joint settlement of Oregon Territory (British/Americans)
figure out who gets what later
Rush Bagot 1819 Demilitarize The Great Lakes
both sides agree no war ships allowed
Why did President Monroe send Andrew Jackson to Florida? 1818 President Monroe sent Jackson and an army to Florida to deal with the Indians
Makes war on the indians
under Spanish law Indians are citizens
Arbuthnot Merchant
charged with selling weapons to US enemies – found guilty and is executed
L.T Ambrister – Royal Marine
Confesses to being a Spy -found guilty and is executed
Seizes Pensacola (the capital of Florida) and installs American Government to run Spanish Florida
Jackson went home it moves to Washington DC.
made the Spanish mad and so now it must be handled by diplomats
Our Greatest Secretary of State- John Quincy Adams has to clean up the mess Jackson created
he tells Andrew Jackson to alter the report and burn the rest
he solves it by diplomacy
says it was self defense to defend itself against the Indians
Spanish Ambassador is very upset
What step would be necessary for Spain to perform before the US would leave Florida? Adams asks Spain for the one thing he knows they can’t do
says we don’t want to be in Florida, but if we are going to leave you MUST put an army in to restrain the Indians in Florida (Spain is falling apart doesn’t have an army to do it)
What step would be necessary for Spain to perform before the US would leave Florida?

Adams asks Spain for the one thing he knows they can’t do
says we don’t want to be in Florida, but if we are going to leave you MUST put an army in to restrain the Indians in Florida (Spain is falling apart doesn’t have an army to do it)
What are the provisions of the Adams- Treaty?
Adams-OnisTreaty
1. US buys Florida for $5 million
2. Spain quit claims to Oregon
3. US quits claims to Texas
2 years after the treaty is signed Spanish Empire collapses-1821
Mexico is independent
Looking West (after War of 1812)
Can you define “autarky”?

self-sufficient nation
manufacturing
finance/banking
Alexander Hamilton’s program inspires the Autarky
What are the elements of the “American System”? 1) Second Bank of the US
regulates currency
2) tariffs on imports
protects US manufacturing
3)Federal $ for infrastructure
Transportation
How will the American System help the US become an autarky? The US can now trade more easily between states and the economy is improved. All of this helps the US become more independent and self sufficient.

What two “revolutions” facilitate this growth?
Two Revolutions
1. Transportation
2. Communication
printing
What were the problems with using rivers for transportation? The problem with the river is one way transportation
What was the impact of the steamboat and canals on trade? Improved economy
brings money to the West
cost of transportation drops
Steamboat was invented by Robert Fulton in 1807
1815 – New Orleans to Pittsburg
2000 miles upriver (against the river)
5 years later 100 steam boats in Mississippi
What is Erie Canal connected to New York wants to connect 2 cities
Buffalo, NY to Albany NY.
1817-1825 by lots of Irish workers. It is 340 miles long mostly on flat land. It improved transportation. Cost of transportation dropped 90%. The land was flat. You could go from to New York to New Orleans. The people of the west will benefit the most.
How do improvements in transportation change agriculture and influence the western market economy? Improved Economy
Brings money to the west
West Pre-Canals
most is consumed by the farm
Canals
price drops, $ to buy products from East
beans
taters
oats
corn
apple jack
Cash crop Wheat

How does this benefit eastern manufacturing? because of canals, prices drops and the West has money to buy products from the East putting more money into the East’s economy
What factors allow cotton to become the dominant crop in the South? 1. Demand
British and France
1851 -68% of the world’s cotton came from the US
2. cotton gin
easier to process cotton
3. Fertile Land
4. Slavery

How did non-slaveholding states also benefit from cotton? 1840 – net profit is 17 million
US can buy off debt
1st Industrial Revolution paid for by cotton
Why did the Federalist Party continue to lose power after the War of 1812? The Federalist Party was dead by 1816
n what way was this considered a good thing by most Americans?

1816-1824 Republican Party is dominant
“Era of Good Feelings"
most Americans thought it was good, less bitterness than two party system
Why did problems crop up over the admission of Missouri? 1817 Missouri wants statehood
Not a part of Northwest or Southwest ordinance
No previous laws don’t apply to Missouri
This sets off 4 years of bitter fighting in congress about Missouri and the future of slavery
What were the provisions of the Missouri Compromise? 1820 Missouri compromise
1. Missouri Slave State
2. Maine Free state
3. a border for slavery at 36th-30th parallel
Why does the Republican party begin to fall apart after the election of 1820? The era of good feeling starts to fall apart in 1820
1. Ego
2. criticism of american system
Who are the four candidates in the election of 1824 and which parts of the Union do they represent? Secretary of state Quincy Adams
New England
American system

William Crawford
Rich South
No American System

Speaker of the House Henry Clay
Northwest
American System

Andrew Jackson
Southwest
Some of the American system

How does this election reflect the sectionalism enveloping the nation? Election of 1824- all the cracks in the Republican party split wide open
Republican Party has candidates that have opposite ideas
each candidate represents different parts of the US who have different concerns and agendas
Crawford dies
Adams against Jackson
Adams Wins
1/2 of Republican went with Democratic Party is founded by Jackson
1828 Jackson verse Adams this time Jackson won
What were the functions of the National Bank? (Second Bank)
Government deposits
Paper currency (dangerous to carry around gold and silver, under national bank is state banks and local banks. Give bank gold and you would get a currency note

Why did Jackson see the Bank as a danger to the nation? Made Loans to congressmen

Threat to democracy (bankers might try to control congresses votes)
1829 Jackson started his war with the bank-very clear he wanted to get rid of the National Bank

What did Jackson bring forth to replace the National Bank? 1832 -when bank was up for charter again (re-charter)
Jackson veto the re-charter

Why were these institutions worse than the one they replaced? State banks
Democratic Party (banks had to be run by a democrat only qualification)
(so now have hundreds of corrupt institutions taking in deposits and printing their own currency)
Jackson was censured by the Senate over the bank