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nutrition test 2

Question Answer
Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids
Protein-sparing action is the process by which the body derives energy from sources other than protein. Such sources can include fatty tissues, dietary fats and carbohydrates
Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body
insulin when is it secreted – by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas.
and what does it do to the glucose? Keeps blood sugar from getting to high
glucagon a hormone formed in the pancreas that promotes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver. when is it secreted – causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream.
what does glucagon do to the glucose? causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose
Normal BGL 70-100
• Health Benefits of high fiber in diets. Protection from heart disease, Reducing risk of Type II diabetes, Protect against colon cancer, Maintain health of GI health – Promote weight control
viscous their health benefits Protect against heart disease & diabetes.
non-viscous fibers their health benefits Maintains healthy digestive tract and alleviates constipation.
viscous Learn few food sources of these fibers. fruits and legumes
Non-viscous Learn few food sources of these fibers. grains and vegetables
• Current dietary recommendations: total carbohydrates (45% – 65% of total kcalories for the day) and dietary fiber (25 – 35 g)
Triglyceride An ester formed from glycerol and three fatty acid groups. Are the main constituents of natural fats and oils, and high concentrations in the blood indicate an elevated risk of stroke.
Saturated holding as much water or moisture as can be absorbed; thoroughly soaked
unsaturated carbon double or triple bonds and therefore not containing the greatest possible number of hydrogen atoms for the number of carbons.
fatty acids carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group, especially any of those occurring as esters in fats and oils
Monounsaturated saturated except for one multiple bond. Exp olive oil
polyunsaturated fatty acids fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone exp walnuts, sunflower seeds
What is hydrogenation? What bad fats does this produce? converting liquid vegetable oils into solid fats by the process of adding hydrogen) trans fats
more saturated fats solid like butter
more unsaturated fats liquid like oils
Phospholipids: characteristics, example (soluble in water and fat) example (lecithin)
• Major sterol cholesterol:
cholesterol to make hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help you digest foods
• Role of soluble fiber in lowering blood cholesterol (it traps bile and is excreted, so the liver uses cholesterol to make new bile, thereby reducing body’s cholesterol
o role of bile (emulsifies fats)
o the 4 lipoproteins (Chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL & HDL) and their properties
LDL delivers cholesterol to cells in the body.
Chylomicrons and VLDL deliver TAG to cells in the body
HDL is involved in reverse cholesterol transport
HDL and LDL HDL (good cholesterol) and LDL (bad cholesterol)
o Desirable levels of triglycerides 150mg/dl
o Desirable levels of ldl 139mg/dl
o Desirable levels of hdl ideal 60, less 50 women, 40 men risk
• 2 Essential fatty acids: names Linoleic and Linolenic acids
• Omega 6 fatty acids (linoleic and arachidonic acids) and omega 3 fatty acids
food sources and benefits to health (linolenic, eicosapentaenoic acid – EPA and docosahexaenoic acid – DHA):
“hearty-healthy” foods which are low in saturated fat and trans-fat, high in soluble fiber, rich in mono and poly unsaturated fats (olive oil, oatmeal, etc)
• Dietary guidelines (2010) and recommendations for fat intake [20% – 35% of total kcalories for the day, by reducing saturated fats (to less than 10% of total kcalories) and increasing monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats] and cholesterol intake ( less than 300 mg per day)
• Element found in protein that is unique Nitrogen
• Number of amino acids 20
• Side group – unique to AA (every amino acid is different because of their unique side group)
• Essential Amino acids indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet
• hydrolysis the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
dipeptides a peptide composed of two amino-acid residues.
• Tripeptides, is a peptide consisting of three amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
• Polypeptides a linear organic polymer consisting of a large number of amino-acid residues bonded together in a chain, forming part of (or the whole of) a protein molecule.
• Protein synthesis errors e.g. Hemoglobin structure (carries oxygen) and sickle cell anemia
Denaturation process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure & 2nd structure which is present in their native state,
Denaturation by application of some external stress, compound such as a strong acid, base a concentrated inorganic salt, organic solvent
pepsin enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. It is produced in the stomach and is one of the main digestive enzymes in the digestive systems of humans and many other animals, where it helps digest the proteins in food
proteins are important in transport and hemoglobin, is an example since it transports oxygen
• Protein sparing effects of carbohydrate and fat (if sufficient carbohydrates and fat are present in the diet, proteins are spared to do their functions of synthesis of body proteins)
• Positive and negative N2 balance is associated with periods of growth, hypothyroidism, tissue repair, and pregnancy. … This means that the amount of nitrogen excreted from the body is greater than the amount of nitrogen ingested
• Deamination of amino group: what happens to it? The amino group is converted ammonia, which is toxic, which travels in blood and the liver converts it to urea, which is less toxic; which is then removed and excreted by the kidneys)
• Quality of protein: High quality eggs, soy; Poor quality– corn
• Protein energy malnutrition: Marasmus – and Kwashiorkor Marasmus – chronic (protein & energy deficiency) and Kwashiorkor – acute (severe protein deficiency)
• Homocysteine and Heart Disease (higher amino acid homocysteine levels, higher risk of heart diseases)
• Protein intake and calcium metabolism (higher intakes of protein, especially animal protein, there is increased excretion of calcium – risk of osteoporosis)
• Recommended intakes of protein: 10% – 35% of total kcalories for the day
Protein RDA is 0.8 gram per kilogram of healthy body weight per day,
i.e., 0.8g / kg body weight/ day.
Metabolism the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
Anabolism the synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy; constructive metabolism.
Catabolism the breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones, together with the release of energy; destructive metabolism.
• Glucose – preferred source of energy for central nervous system, brain and red blood cells