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What are the 5 components of Reading? 1. Phonological Awareness
2. Phonics
3. Fluency
4. Vocabulary
5. Comprehension
What are the 4 elements of fluency? 1. Accuracy
2. Automaticity
3. Rate
4. Prosody
What are the 8 elements of Reading Comprehension? 1. Main Idea 2. Supporting Details 3. Author's Purpose 4. Fact and opinion 5. Point of View 6. Inference 7. Visualize 8. Conclusion
What are the 7 Strategies for Reading Comprehension? 1. Activate Prior Knowledge 2. Summarize 3. Self-Monitor 4. Questioning 5. Use of Graphic and Semantic Organizers 6. Think-Alouds 7. Recognize Story Structure
What are the 5 Phases of Word Recognition? 1. Pre-Alphabetic 2. Partial Aphabetic 3. Full Alphabetic 4. Graphophonemic 5. Morphemic
What is Graphophonemic? Combining letters and sounds to make words
What is morphemic? The smallest unit of a word, such as -un, -ing
What are the 6 syllable types? 1. closed Syllable 2. Open Syllable 3. Silent E 3. Vowel Combination 4. "R" controlled 5. "LE" combination
What are the 7 key components of structural analysis? 1. Root words 2. Base words 3. prefixes 4. suffixes 5. contractions 6. compound words 5. inflectional endings
What are the 7 Critical Thinking Strategies? 1. Making Connections 2. Making Predictions 3. Questioning 4. Summarizing 5. Analyzing 6. Synthesizing 7. Evaluating
What are the 8 contents of Emergent Literacy? 1. Oral Language Development 2. Phonological Awareness 3. Alphabet Knowledge 4. Decoding 5. Concepts of Print 6. Motivation 7. Text Structures 8. Written Language Development
What are ways to encourage oral development? Whole group discussions, small group discussions, and one-on-one discussions
What are 12 oral language development activities? discussions, read alongs, eho reading, songs, nursery rhymes, storytelling, readers theater, cloze activities, poetry, role play and drama, finger plays, etc.
What are 6 activities to encourage Phonological awareness? word play, syllables, onset/rimes, alliteration, intonation, and rhyming
What are 3 ways to increase alphabet knowledge? Alphabet books, magnetic letters, and a variety of print.
What are concepts of print? knowing print conveys meaning, reading left to right, top to bottom, front to back, concept of words, letter knowledge, phonemic awareness, literacy language (author, illustrations, title, etc.)
How is motivation useful for Emergent Literacy? Self-motivation is the best tool for learning through interest, exploration, and experimentation.
What are the 6 Literary Elements? 1. Setting 2. Characters 3. Plot 4. Theme 5. Style 6. Mood
What is an allegory? a story in verse or prose with characters representing virtues and vices; used to teach or explain an idea; example: Wizard of OZ, the lion is cowardice,
What is a Ballad? Verses usually set to music
What is a Drama? told in 5 acts; comedy, modern, or tragedy
What is an Epic? A long poem reflecting values inherent in the generative society
What is an Epistle? A letter that is not always intended for public viewing
What is an Essay? Focuses on a definite point of view and authoritative tone
What are the 5 elements of a plot? 1. Exposition (Beginning) 2. Rising Action 3. Climax 4. Falling Action 5. Denouement (Final Resolution.)
What is a theme? the underlying message
What is the style? the way the author writes
What is the mood? The atmosphere or the attitude
What is the requirement for poetry? Rhythm
What 6 genres may be included in folklore? 1. Nursery Rhymes 2. Folk tales/Fairy tales 3. Fables 4. Myths 5. Legends 6. Tall tales
What are folk tales/fairy tales? Stories with adventures of animals or humans and the supernatural.
What are fables? Tales offering up a moral, usually contains animals
What are myths? stories shared with a culture to explain history and traditions
What are legends? Similar to myths, however, relate to more recent events; a traditional narrative or collection of related narratives, regarded as historically factual, but actually a mixture of fact and fiction
What are tall tales? Purposely exaggerated accounts of individuals with superhuman strengths.
What are Fantasy tales? Usually start out based in reality, but enter worlds or unreality, such as people that live in the walls of the Borrowers
What is a novel? A narrative of book length, typically representing character and action with some degree of realism.
What is a romance? A highly imaginative tale set with conflicts between heroes, villains, and monsters
What is Science Fiction? Robots, spacecrafts, science mystery and civilization
What is Realistic Fiction? About real problems that real children face
What is Historical Fiction? Set in historically accurate settings
What is a Biography? About real peoples' lives
What is a Non-Fiction? based on facts, real events, etc.
What is a Fiction? literature in the form of prose, esp. short stories and novels, that describes imaginary events and people.
What are the 8 essential Comprehension Skills? 1. Main Idea 2. Topic 3. Topic Sentence 4. Supporting Details 5. Fact and Opinion 6. Point of View 7. Inference 8. Conclusion
What is alliteration? Words with the same beginning sounds
What is hyperbole? an exaggeration to emphasize a point
What is onomatopoeia? The use of words with sounds to reinforce meaning, such as Bang, Boom, Smash
What is Analogy? detailed comparison
What is irony? using words opposite of intended meaning
What is personification? Giving human qualities
What is Climax? The highest dramatic point
What is a metaphor? Comparing 2 distinctly different items
What is a simile? Comparing 2 items using lie or as
What is an Oxymoron? A contradiction in terms.
What is imagery? Refers to any sensory experience; taste, smell, touch, hear, etc.
What are symbols? an object that suggests other objects
What is an allusion? An implied reference to a person, event, thing, or part of another text.
What are the 7 Developmental Writing Strategies? 1. Scribbling 2. Mock handwriting 3. Mock letters 4. Conventional letters 5. Invented or temporary spelling 6. Phonetic Spelling 7. Conventional spelling
What are the 6 steps of the Writing Process? 1. Pre-writing 2. Drafting 3. Revising 4. Editing 5. Proofreading 6. Publishing
What are 5 elements of Pre-Writing? 1. Brainstorming 2. Listing 3. Mapping 4. Free Writing 5. Charting
What is editing? Correcting terminology usage
What is proofreading? Correcting mechanical grammar, syntax, and spelling errors
What are the 7 modes of writing? 1. Narrative 2. Persuasive 3. Descriptive 4. Expository 5. Informative 6. Creative 7. Summary
What is narrative writing? Writing arranged chronologically
What is expository writing? informative in nature; to explain or clarify
What is informative writing? Writing to primarily inform.
What are the 5 Writing conventions? 1. Spelling 2. Punctuation 3. Capitalization 4. Syntax 5. Word Usage
What are semi-colons used for? to separate independent ideas with a transitional word
What are colons used for? prior to making a list
What are dashes used for in grammar? to note sudden breaks in thought
What are italics used for in grammar? to punctuate titles, names of periodical publications, musical scores, works of art, motion pictures, television and radio programs
What type of assessment is the FCAT? A criterion referenced test.
What are the Informal Reading Inventory levels? 95 – 100 = Independent Level
90 – 94 = Instructional Level
89 and below = Frustration Level
What are screening assessments? to identify beginning reading levels
What are the 3 Cueing Systems? 1. Semantic 2. Syntax 3. Graphophonemic
What are Holistic Assessments? Scoring that assesses a piece of writing as a whole.
What are 7 Classroom Organizational Formats? 1. Literature Circles 2. Workshops 3. Literacy Circles/Stations 4. Small Groups 5. Paired/Buddy Readings 6. Multi-age Groups 7. Individual Work
What are workshops? Students work on different products simultaneously
What are literacy center/stations? Poetry, listening, word work, writing, spelling, comprehension, literature response, vocabulary, art, and independent reading, etc.
What are multi-age groups? Teachers of different grades correspond activities between students.
What are 6 common difficulties for emerging readers? 1. difficulty processing information 2. frustration in not understanding text 3. problems with word recognition 4. limited vocabulary hindering comprehension 5. poor visual – motor integration 6. printing difficulties
What are 5 Strategies for working with Emergent Readers? 1. Extensive readings with pictures 2. Searching for high frequency words 3. Begin early writing or writing attempts 4. limit distractions 5. select appropriate materials
Name 6 ways to assess students' development. 1. Concepts of print checklist 2. high frequency word checklist 3. rubrics 4. games 5. surveys 6. portfolios
Name activities to include in the classroom daily: read alongs, guided reading, shared reading, basic concepts of reading, word recognition skills, vocabulary, sight words, high frequency words, literary elements, content knowledge, narrative and expository structure, comprehension strategies
What are the 4 elements of Penmanship (Handwriting)? 1. Letter Formation 2. Spacing 3. Letter size and alignment 4. Line quality
What are the 4 basic strokes of letter formation? 1. circles 2. horizontal lines,3. vertical lines, 4. slant lines
What is important about spacing? Being consistent
What is letter size and alignment? Appropriate size and using headline, mid-line, and base line
What is line quality? Consistent smoothness and quality of lines
What are 3 elements of educational technology? 1. Interactive White Boards 2. Computer Software 3. Web Tools
What are 8 Web Tools? 1. E-mail 2. Online Book Clubs 3. WebQuests 4. Wiki Sites 5. Video Conferencing 6. Blogs 7. Podcasts 8. Video Projects
What are Blogs? a personal website or webpage
What are podcasts? files made available on the internet
What are 6 elements of listening and speaking strategies? 1. Questioning, 2. Paraphrasing, 3. Eye Contact, 4. Voice, 5. Body Language, and 6. Visual Aids
What are the 4 elements of voice in public speaking and listening? 1. Volume, 2. Pitch, 3. Pace, and 4. Pronunciation
What are the 4 elements of body language? 1. Posture, 2. Movement, 3. Gestures, and 4. Eye Contact.
What is Word Analysis? (Also called phonics or decoding) is the process readers use to figure out unfamiliar words based on written patterns
What is Phonological Awareness? the ability of the reader to recognize the sound of spoken language.
What is Phonemic Awareness? The idea that words are composed of sounds.
What is Alphabetic Principle (or Graphophonemic Awareness)? Describes the understanding that written words are composed of patterns of letters that represent the sound of spoken words.
What is Morphology? The study of word structure.
What is Orthography? It is using written symbols to represent spoken language.
What is Syntax? It refers to the rules or patterned relationships that correctly create phrases and sentences from words.
What is Semantics? It refers to the meaning expressed when words are arranged in a specific way
What is Pragmatics? It is the difference between the writer's meaning and the literal meaning of the sentence based on social context.
What is Decode? To change communication signals into messages; requires readers to learn the code in which a message is written and be able to decode it to get the message; sound out letters
What is Encode? to change messages into symbols; examples include: changing oral language into writing (spelling,) putting an idea into words, or representing a mathematical idea using appropriate mathematical symbols; construct meaning from code
What is Connotation? It is the emotional attachment to words.
What is Denotation? It is the literal meaning of words.