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FTCE English

Question Answer
phonics teching reading emphasizes the association between grapheme ( the written symbol) with the phoneme (the speech sound). This method attempts to relate spelling rules to the process.
William Mcgufft & Rudolf Flesch (1955) wrote reading book 1836, When johnny Cant read and wht you can do about it.
Advantagres to phonics gives children ntools for figuring out how to read and pronounce words that they do not know immedediately.
Advantage to phonics using with auditory learner is an evident advantage
advantage to phonics reader can after transfer their skills to spelling
advantage to phonics students are often good spellers
Disadvantage to phonics visual learners may not read well using this method
disadvantage to phonics the rules to do hold true all the time and some students are confused when they a rule and then encounter the frequent exceptions to that rule.
IRA key assertion that phonics is an important aspect in begining reading instruction, primary teachers value and teach phonics is integrated into the total language arts program
Neurological Impress method (Nim) hecklman 1969 the teacher sits slightly behind the reader: the teacher and the learner hold (share) the book jointly and read aloud togther. The teacher should slide finger along each line and follow the words ans the two say the words togther.
Davis & MccDaniel (1998) (enviromental print) essential word: exit danges, high voltage, stop, beware, keepout
Language experience approach (LEA) attempts to facilitate students language dev. through the use of experiences rather than printed material alone
Phonological awareness children learn to associate the roughly 44 speech sounds in the english language with visula represntation
Invented spelling when trying to write by applying their understanding of spelling rules.
Analytic phonics using phonics in the context with actual material
synthetic phonics phonics taught in isolation from meaningful books and materials often using worksheets
Incidental approach introduce phonis rules or generalizations as they appear
structured systematic, sequential program helps ensure that readers have at thier disposal an arsenal of skills to decode new words and spell the words correctly
Marie Carbo (1993) a good whole language program does include phonics
structural analysis breaking a word into its parts or syllables
compound word rule a child divides a compound word into its parts. then sounds out each part
syntactic cues attention to syntact can increase comprhension or understanding. Thses clues include grammatical hints:the order of words:word endings; & the way the word functions,or work, inphrases sentences or passages
semantic cues hints within the sentence and from entire passage or text that helps reader to determine the meaning. Semantic cues are meaning cues.
emergent reading stage making the transition from speaking to writing and reading with the support from others
developing reading stage middle-first to late 2nd grade level becomes more independent in reading
transitional reading stage has an instructional reading level of 2nd grade and beyond
reading stratgies activation prior knowledge, predicting or asking questions, visualizing, drawing inferences
reading stratgies determing important ideas, synthesizing information, repairing understanding, comfirming, using parts of book and reflecting.
Vocabulary instruction making connection to the background of students
Vocabulary instruction reapeating vocabulary words and using then in meaningful sentences
Vocabulary instruction encourage independent reading, shared reading, word wall
Vocabulary instruction providing students with a,mple opportunties to review ans use newly acquired vocab words in context
Vocabulary instruction teaching idioms, use dictionaaries, glossaries, multiple meanings of words, antonyms, synonyms, homonyms, figurative meaning and word parts
Mapping and webbing helps students think about reading pasages and its structure
SQ3R survey, question, read, recite, review
survey (SQ3R) before reading the student should look over the assigned reading and consider some questions. Are there illustrations, charts diagrams, what are the chapter headings are some words in bold
Question (SQ3R) devise questions that they reading will probably answer
Read (SQ3R) student reads to answer the questions that the dev. before reading
Recite (SQ3R) student attempts to answer orally or in writing questions
Review (SQ3R) student reviewa the material to "double check"
PROVE Purpose, read, organize, vocabulary, evaluate
Purpose (PROVE) estblish the purpose or set up questions to guide your reading
Read (PROVE) read the passage to try to achieve the purpose or answer the questions
Organize (PROVE) outline: place detail under main idea
Vocabulary (PROVE) note any new vocab words or concepts that you master
Evaluate (PROVE) evaluate to determine if you achieved your purpose
Robert J Marzano & Daisy E Arredando (1986) Tactics for thinking K-12th
Asserts tha thinking skilss dev should be part of the classroom and teacher directed . Components include elaboration, synthesizing, goal seeking and deep processing
literal level of comprehension lowest level of understanding, involves reading the lines and understanding exactly what is on the page (facts and details)
Interpretive level of comprehension 2nd highest level of understanding. Requires students to read between the lines ( explain figurative language, define terms. Student must infer authors purpose, main idea, essential message, point of view and the conclusion
critical level of comprhension high level of understaning. Students must judge the passgae they have read. Read beyond the lines, having students determine whether a passage is tru or fals, fact or opinon.
creative level of comprrhension the highest level of understanding. Students must read beyond the lines make judgments anout oter actions
Blooms Taxonomy has 6 levels. Knowledge level, comprhension level, application level. analysis level, synthese level and evaluation level
Blooms Taxonomy- level 1 knowledge level- students give back the info that is on the page
Blooms Taxonomy-level 2 comprhension level- students show that the can give meaning of terms idioms, figurative language and other elements of writen material
Blooms Taxonomy-level 3 Application level- students take waht they have read and disuss whay that they could use the same concepts
Blooms Taxonomy-level 4 analysis level- students examine the parts or components of a passage
Blooms Taxonomy-level 5 synthesis level- students move from specifics to generalizations
Blooms Taxonomy-level 6 evaluation- students judge if a passage id fact or opion true/fals, biased or unbiased
convegent question (assessing comprhension) indicates that only one answer is correct
divergent question (assessing comprehension) indicates that more than one answer is correct
cloze test ( assessing comprhension) a passage with omittes words and the test takes must supply the missing words.
descriptive writing the writer of fition describes a time ans the characteristics of the setting
ordered list typically in content area of text the author can present facts and info quickly and concisely
sequence organization can occue in both fiction and nonfiction. A writer can organize a sequence set the purpose of the text. (ist, next, before, after and last)
cause-and-effect include because, resulting in why, as a result therfore, if then
camparsion when writer expalins similarities between 2 or more things (like, same as and similar)
contrast contrasr thins or indivduals how they are different ( different from, on the other hand and opposite of)
chronological order history books, biographies and many narratives relate their inof in the order in which they happened (ist, next, then, and last)
Problem solution the writer can state the problem and then eaithe offer several solutions or present the best answer for the reader
prose is what people write and speak most of the time everyday converstatins: unmetered unrhymrd language can be fiction and nonfiction
novels an extended fictional prose narrative (take) a rather long story filled with many characters abd subplots
interclaring chapter alternates between "real" or prpheral parrel stories
motif a story detail or element that repeats throughout the work: it may even become symbolic
setting where and when the story takes place
language word choice
syntax word oder sentence type and length
verse each section of a poem(rhyme, rhythm & meter) postioning of lines on the page
stanza a grouping of lines with a material order (rhyme scheme)
end rhyme has the rhyming word at the end of the line
internal rhyme included at least one rhymiong word within the line. Purpose is to speed the rhyme or to make it linger
slant rhyme sometimes referd toi a half, off, near or approximate rhymr. Often jolts a reader who expects a perfect rhymr. Used to express disappointment or deliberate letdown
mascline rhyme uses one syllable words or stresses the final syllabla
feminine rhyme uses two or more syllables.
free verse when the lines od a poem are unrhymes and varying in pattern
meter pattern or measure of stresses or accentes words within a line of verse
lambic meter a line of poetry the alternates stressed abd unstressed syllable
lambic rhyme rising and falling rhythm
lambic pentameter a line of poetry with 10 syllables of rising and falling stresses ( shakespeare and john milton)
foot basic measuring unit in a line of poetry
form the pattern or design od a poem
open form dev fron free verse, has no rules regarding number of lines, rhyme scheme or meter
closed form is immediately recognizable b/c it hasa set number of lines, rhyme scheme and meter ( sonnet, couplet, epic, ballad, narrative, ode)
sonnet always has 14 lines
petrarchan or italian sonnet 2 poarts, octave-ist part made up of 8 lines, the next 6 linesare the sestet ( a turn or shift) the octave typicallt sets the porblem or proposition and the seset gives the answer
shakespearean sonnet organizes the 14 lines into 3 grops of 4 lines and the ending group of two rhyming lines called couplet.
couplet a closed form of poetry. has 2 line stanza that usually rhymes with an end rhyme (Thelliad and the odyssey)
epic vastness of size and range. The translations usually in couplters. The meter id regular with egual line lengths ( orginally the performer sang the epic)
ballads revolves aorund love and hate and lust and murder lovers, knights and the supernatural
elegy a lament for someones death or passing of a love or concept (Thomas Gray's Elegy written in a country church yard)
ode dealing with profiund areas of human life than simply death (Keat's Odes)
villanella a love poem structure from medievel times.(Dylan Thomas's Do not gentle into that goodnight)
sestine (sog of sixes) has 6-6 ine stanzas with 6 end words in a certain order and then repeats those 6 words in any order in a closing tercet
epigram is short even abrupt, a little cynical and always to the point (Alexander Pope)
limerick very skilled. 5 lines using the rhyme scheme aabba (edward lear's, ther once was a man with a beard)
aubade orginally a sonf piece of music. revoleves around the subject of lovers at dawn
fretags pyramid ( 5 act drama) 1) intriduction, 2) complication, 3) rising Action, 4) climax, 5) falling action and 6) conclusion
eassy a straight forward account of the writers opion on a specfic topic
expository essay infomed
agrumentative essay provoked
persuasive essay covinced
critical essay enlightened
narrative acquainted with the writter
satire mode of wtiting, a perspective that the reaer must try to understand through critical thinking.
satirist uses humore- focuses on what wrong with the world intending to expose the folbles of humand and their society
romanticism see the word idealistically as perfectinle if not already perfect
realism see the world as it is, with healthy does both good and bad
naturalism (satirist) see the worls as imperfect with eel aften triumping over good
hyperhole irony examples satirical novel: Jonathans Swift's gullivers travel and Mark Twains the adventures of Huckleberry Finn
parables a stroy that is realistic and has a moral. teaches a lesson could be but noe neccessarily true
fables a nonrealistic story with a moral. Often has animals as main characters. ( The fox and the crane, the fox and the crow and the fox and the grapes)
beast tales fables about animals behaviong as humans
william caxten ist to publish the fablws in English( 1484)
fairy tales an element of magiv, good will always wins over evil (live happily ever after) Sterotyping
folktales use the language of the people. The stories rarely have morals and are soley for entertainment. Humor often playing a major role
noodlehead stories are folktales with a humorus bent one or more characters who the reader or lidtner can outsmart ( epaminondas & his auntiue)( Richard tales & ZGrandfather tales)
mythes are stories that attempt to explain things the letter does not understand
legends are stories usually exaggerated about real people places and things
lengends are stories usually exaggerated about real people places and things
novels are realistic stories or eventd that coud really hasppen. has realistic setting and character
romances presents an idealized view of life always containing fantsy
confessions characters reveals personal thoughts and ideas( wilder books- little house)
menippean satires allows the reader to see the world through the eyes of another ( charlie and the chocolate factory)
plot the story line- the elemnet that holds the readers attention. Involves conflict and has a pattern and structure.
flashback plot carries reader from the present to event in the past
foreshawdowing hint of the future of wht is to come
conflict unsettled issues in the plot to keep the reader intrested.
suspense keeps the reader to doubt or uncertaninty as to the outcome until the end ( Island of the blue dolphins)
cliffhanger an exciting unsolved event designed to keep the reader turing the pages
sensationlism when a series of exciting event occur (Hensel & Gretel)
climax highest point of intrest in a book or story
flase climax leads readers to believe they have their questions answered onlt tp find the story has new twist and turns
denouenment the ending of the book
open denouement occers with the reader do not have answers to all their questions
closed dennouement ocurs when the reader have answers to all the questions
progressive plot the reader must finish the book to find the answer to the questions in the plot
spisodic plot comtains chapters each of wehich is a complete story
setting the time place where a story occurs
backdrop setting is not essential to the text. most backdrop settings are figurative meaning they serve as illustration
intergral setting is essential to the plot. setting is litersal, meaning the story could asctually occur where the authos sets it
charcaters can be round fully dev desribed or revealed
characters can be flat underdeveloped
characters can be dynamic somekind of change in the course of the story
characters can be static do not change
protagonist struggles for someone or something
antagonist is the enemy of the rival struggling againist the protagonist
sterotyping without indivdual characterictics
foils helps the reader see the novels other charcter more clearly
allergoical standing for qualities or concern rather that for actual personages
Revealing charcater tell about the character. describe the character in the characters surroundingd, show the character in action
sppech or dialect or diction of the charcter reveals the thoughts of th character, apperance, what others say about the character, inof anput the character, reaction of others to the character and tha characters reactions to others
theme the main point of the book
impliot (suggested) or explicit ( stated)
survival of the fittest should not suevive but does
picareaque a roguish character typically lowborn but clever the rough wonders in and out of adventure ar all social levels
reversal of fortune focuses on the changing circumsatnces of a character or characters
denotation (style) its precise meaning
connotation (style) in the impression or feeling a word gives beyond exact meaning
irony (style) the incogruity between what one expects abd what actually happens
Humor (stlye) is precise exacting: its funny!
figurative (style) incleds the use of similes, metaphors and personification. Its a way of sdding inof and description to the writing and encouraging the reader to think aboutr the text
simile a description thjat uses like, than or as
metaphor calling somrthing by a different name
personification giving hum characteristics to inanimate objects
alliteration writes uses a repeated sounds
consonance like alliteration, is the repetition of sounds in this case consonant sounds
aasonance the repetition of a vowel sound
onomatopoea a stylistic device in which the word the writer uses imitstes the sound
rhythme flow or cadence of the words. can help creatre a mood
mood feeloing in the reader
imagery a description of the smells, feelings sounds or sights of a person, [place or event
hyperhole an exaggeration
unserstatement a comment the minimizes
allusion a refernece to a historical. literary or otherwise generally familiar character event that helps make an ides understandable
word play pun
parody is an imitation of something else
diction is the language of the people
symbolism the use of 1 person. place or thing to represent another
authenticity as an esstial element of the bok. Must be believeable and convincing must be accurate for the time and the place or at least believable to the reader
apostrphpe the direct address of someone or something that is not present (odes)
bathos deliberate anticlimax to make a difinite point or draw attention to the falsness
enjambment the running on of the sense and structure of one line of poetry into the next
paradox a situation action or feeling that appears to be contradictory but on inspectiom turns out to be tru or at least make sense
oxymoton a form of paradox in which contradictory words are used next to each other
pun a play on words, often humorous or saractic effect
sacrasm harsh vebal irony
tone the voice or attidude of the speaker
assimilation a view that promotes a natural culture abd considers microcultures until they become part of the national culture
pluralism suggest that a functional society should recognize and accept micoecultures as they are
promotes multiculturalism in the classroom the diversity in american culture, the influences of cultures on society, the many vsrous cultures in the world, the prgind of rhymes stories games and riddles
books before 1940's tha had balck main charcters unlce remus ( 1883), little black sambo (1899), epaminondas and his auntie (1907) promoted prejudice
Books that promoted blacks in better light two in a team( 1945), CALL ME CHARLEY (1945), bRIGHT APRIL (1946)
bibliotherapy giving the right book to the right child at the right time or treating problems with books
predicting readers make guessses about will happen
connecting student to relate the reading to their own lives to the world and to ther materials
visualizing student to create mental images of the info that they are reading
questioning student to answer literal, interpretive, critical and creative questions
summarizing restaing the major points in consise statements
montioring performed by teachers and the students to ensure that they young reader understands what they are reading
evaluating evaluation questions are in the highest level of blooms taxomny
Alexander Luria's stages of writing dev Stage 1-unddifferentiated stage (3-5), Satge 2- differentiated stage ( from about age 4), Stage 3- pictographic stage (4-6)
undifferentiated stage (satge 1 in Luria's 3 stages) prewritting or preinstruments period child does not distinguish between marks written on a page. The marks (writing seem merely random and do not help the child recall info
differentiated stage ( stage 2 in Luria's stages) is when the child intentionally builds a relationship between sounds and written expression
pictographic stage ( satge 3 in Luria's stages) the most important stage in dev of the childs perception of writing as a conceptuel act
prewriting stage ( Writing process) 1t stage in wrotong process. students begin to collect info for the writing they will do
compsoing/writing stage (writing process) student writes. they do not worry about spelling and mechanics
revisig stage (writing process) writers polish and improve their writing
editing/ evaluation/postwriting stage ( writing process) student read and correct their own writing and works of others
rewrite stage ( writing process) students rewrite thier work to be published
language experience approach the teacher asttempts to facilitiaate the studens language dev through the use of experience rather than porinted material
narrative a story or an account may be fictional/nonfiction
descriptive to provide infor anput person place or thing can be fiction/nonfiction
expository is to explain and clarify ideas found in many textbooks
persuasive convince the reader of something ( magazines and newspapers) present point, provides evidence and supports the point
speculative it looks at ideas and explores them ather than merely explaining them oftem m kaes more then 1 point
audience who will be reading the story
occasion helps to determine the elements of the writing the language should fit the occasion
puopose helps to determine the format and the language of the writer
SREB assessment should be ongoing and natural that continual observatio of the physical, socail, emtional and cognitive domaines of students by both parents/teachers is the mose meaningful approach
running record a way to assess students word identification skills and fluency in oral reading. Idependent level 95%, instructional level 90-94%, frustration level 89%
retelling a child retells the main parts of the story
check list a list a competencies skilss or requirments and then uses the list to check off the ones the student or group dispaly
advantages of check list potential for capturinh behaviors that connot be accurately measures with a paper pencil test, it is structures which provides consiteny
disadventages of check list inflexability
anecdotal records advantages it can include all revelent ifo
anecdotal records disadvantage the amount of time necessary to complete the record and the difficulty in assigning grades
portfolios collection of students best work
portofolio advantages provides a clear picture of student progress helps to dev student self assessment skills
portofolio disadvantages the amount of time required to teach students how to dev meaningful portfolios/
formative assessment ( formal assessment) occurs during the process of learning when the teacher montiors the students progress in obtaining outcames while still possiable to modify instruction
summative assessment ( formal assessment) occurs at the end of a specific time or course of study. A single grade represents a studens performance
criterion referenced (CRT) measurs each student againist objectectives or criteria. teacher made
norm referenced test (NRT) to compare performance of a group of students
percentile score indicates the % of the population whose score falls at or below the students score
raw score indicate how many questions the student answered correctly
normed scores compare perfornmance of students with the performance of students whom the test dev used as its norm group
reluabilty give consistent results with repeated measurement
validity the test measures what its suppose to measure
a teat must be reliable before it can be valid
performance based assessment assess students on how well they perform certain task. Students must use higher level thinking skills apply, analyze, synthesize and evaluate ideas and data
disadvantage of performance based assessment can be tine consuming, requires multiple resouces, teachers must receive training
authntic assessment project, obnservations, checklist, anecdital records. portfolios, self assessments and peer assessments
essay question advantages possiable for students to be vreative in their answer, opportunity for student to explain their response, the potential to test for higher-level thinking
essay question disadvantages time students need to formulate meainingful reponses and the teachers need to evaluate the essay
piagetion theory learning in discret & predictable stages, concersational interaction w/adults are a key component of learnin g in the classroom
internal factors personality charactritics, self-consept, sense of self-essteem, self discipline, sel-control,their abiltiy to cope with stress, their outlook on life, amd their learning style
extenal factors home enviroment, family realationships, peer interactions, community situations and school environment
scaffolding a technique used to provide guidence to students as the conduct research
scaffolding will provide direction, clarify purpose, keep students on task, offer the assessment (rubric to calify expectations), supply some suggestions for sources, make available a lesson or activity w/prob, be an efficient instructional technique, general thinking
methods teacher use to assess math knowledge teacher made test, paper & pencil test, projects, paper & portifolos, machine scorable test, essay test, authentic assessment, observations, anecdotal records, self & peer assessment, CRT, NRT, performance based assessment
Blooms taxonomy of educational objectives Level 1 knowl;edge, level2 comprhension, level 3 application, level 4 analysi, level 5 synthesis, level 6 evaluation
Level 1 Blooms taxonomy Knwledge-students capabilty- remebers,( recalls learns or memorized)info.
level 2 Blooms taxonomy comprhension-student capabilty- understand the meaning on info and is able to restate it in own words
Level 3 Bloom;s taxonomy application-students capabiltiiy- uses the ifo in new situations
level 4 Blooms taxonomy analysis-students capabiltiy– breaks down info into component parts: examines parts of divergewnt thinking and inferences
Level 5 blooms taxonomy synthese-student capability- creates something new by divergently or creatively uding info
level 6 Bloom taxonomy evaluation-students capabiltiy- judges on the basis of informed criteria