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Ch. 3 Test Env Sci SFHS- Environmental Science Hodge

Question Answer
How did the Himalaya Mountains form? Himalayas are on a convergent boundary where lithospheric plates come together
Give 4 examples of landforms developed by wind and water erosion Gorges, caves, beaches, deserts
Where are the most geologically active regions on the surface of the earth? on plate boundaries
What produces atmospheric oxygen? photosynthesis
Where is the ozone layer? in the stratosphere
What is the function of the ozone and what is it made up of? made up of 03 ( ozone)..absorbs UV radiation
What are the daily conditions of the atmosphere in terms of temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, and moisture? weather
What is the temperature of the earth’s inner core? Between 4000-5000 °C
What is A scale used by scientists to quantify the amount of energy released by an earthquake. Richter scale
What does magnitude measure? measure of the energy released
What is the range earthquakes are measured using the Richter scale? 1-10
What is melted rock beneath the earth's surface? magma
List the 3 compositional layers of the earth? crust, mantle, core
Describe the core. core consists of an inner core and outer core; inner core is solid while the outer core is liquid
Describe the mantle. the mantle is made of dense iron rich minerals, that is in liquid form
What are 5 characteristics of the crust 1) 5-70 km thick
2) solid
3) brittle
4) outermost layer
5) made of light weight material such as Oxygen and Silicon
What are the 2 types of crust? Continental crust and oceanic crust
List the 4 layers of the atmosphere starting with the atmosphere closest to Earth. Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere
What is the lowest layer of the atmosphere where weather conditions occurs? Troposphere
What is located in the stratosphere? ozone
What is the coldest layer of the atmosphere? Mesosphere
What layer of the atmosphere contains the ionosphere which absorbs X rays and gamma rays by nitrogen and oxygen causing atoms to become electrically charged? Thermosphere
Which layer of the atmosphere is the hottest layer? Thermosphere
As you move up in the atmosphere what happens to the density of each layer? the atmosphere is denser near the Earth’s surface & becomes less dense with elevation
As you move up in the atmosphere what happens to the pressure in each layer? pressure increases consistently with altitude
What is the Earth’s densest atmospheric layer? troposhere
What happens to temperature in the troposphere? temperature drops as altitude increases
What happens to temperature in the stratosphere? Temperature rises as altitude increases because of ozone
What happens to temperature in the mesosphere? temperature drops with increasing altitude
What happens to temperature in the thermosphere? temperature increases (measuring above 2,000 C)
What is is the movement of matter due to differences in density that are caused by temperature variations an can result in the transfer of energy as heat? convection
What is the transfer of energy as heat through a material? conduction
What is the energy that is transferred as electromagnetic waves, such as visible light and infrared waves? radiation
Heat transferred from a fire to warm hands is an example of ______ radiation
Water boiling is an example of _____ convection
Heat transferred from CONTACT of touching a hot metal pot is an example of ___ conduction
What is the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate infrared radiation? greenhouse effect
Why is the greenhouse effect necessary for life on earth? the Earth would be too cold for life to exist.
What makes up all the water on or near the Earth’s surface? hydrosphere
What is mostly solid, rocky part of the earth? geosphere
What is the mixture of gases that makes up the air we breathe? atmosphere
What is the solid, outer layer of the Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle that is broken into plates? lithosphere
Where is the most of the fresh water on earth located? Ice caps & glaciers
What is the concentration of all the dissolved solids( mostly salts)? salinity
Most of the salt in the ocean is ____________ sodium chloride
What are streamlike movements of water that flow very slowly along the ocean floor? deep currents
What is a sharp decrease in the temperature of the water? thermocline
What is Anywhere on earth that there is life? biosphere
What process creates surface currents? wind
How do scientists determine what the interior of the earth looks like? Seismic waves
What is the process in which the materials of the Earth’s surface are loosened, dissolved, or worn away and transported form one place to another by a natural agent, such as wind, water, ice or gravity? erosion
What are vibrations of the earth’s crust caused by slippage along a fault? earthquakes
Where do earthquakes happen? at plate boundaries
How do volcanic eruptions affect the climate? In large eruptions, clouds of volcanic ash and sulfur rich gases may reach the upper atmosphere, and spread across the planet reducing the amount of sunlight that reaches the Earth’s surface
30. What is the composition of the atmosphere? 78% nitrogen; 21% oxygen; 1% other gases (argon, carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor)
What are 4 greenhouse gases? water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide
What are greenhouse gases? The gases in the atmosphere that trap and radiate heat
Do oceans or land absorbs more heat energy? oceans
What are small creeks that feed rivers? tributaries
What process does liquid water turn in to water vapor? evaporation
What process does water vapor turn in to liquid water? condensation
What are examples of precipitation? rain, sleet, snow
What is a rock layer that stores and allows the flow of groundwater? aquifer
What type of tectonic plate boundaries move apart? divergent boundaries
What type of tectonic plate boundaries collide (come together)? Convergent boundaries
What type of tectonic plate boundaries slide past one another? transform boundaries
How did the Himalaya mountains form? Two continental crusts colliding (convergent boundary)
What is an example of a divergent boundary? Mid Atlantic Ridge
SHORT ANSWER TOPICS:
1) plate boundaries
2) compositional layers of earth
3) electromagnetic radiation
4) greenhouse effect (greenhouse gases)
5) water cycle
6) layers of atmosphere & characteristics