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AP Human Culture

Question Answer
culture group of belief systems, norms, and values that are practiced by a people
culture trait single attribute of a culture ex. money
culture complex combo of culture traits
culture system culture complexes grouped together because they have culture traits in common
geographic regions term preferred by many geographers instead of culture region
culture realm most highly generalized regionalization of culture and geography
local culture a group of people in a particular place
who see themselves as a collective or community
who share experiences, customs, and traits
who work to preserve those traits and customs (to stay unique)
popular culture a wide ranging group of heterogeneous people
material and non material culture material: things a group of people construct, such as art, houses, clothing, sports, dance, and food
non: the beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people
knowers people who have experienced or have an understanding of a culture, sometimes by traveling or searching out cultures but typically through diffusion
hearth point of origin of a cultural trait
contagious and hierarchical diffusion both are the spread of culture
customs a practice that a group of people routinely follows, local cultures are sustained by maintaining customs
ethnic neighborhoods areas within major cities where certain cultures are practiced, one way to keep their own culture in while keeping others out
gentrification a shift in an urban community toward wealthier residents and/or businesses and increasing property values, usually caused by increased investment
urban local cultures can create ethnic neighborhoods within cities, creates space to practice customs, but can cluster businesses, houses of worship, or schools to support local culture
rural local cultures migration into rural areas is less frequent, can better separate their culture from others and from popular culture
neolocalism seeking out local culture and reinvigorating it, response to modernization or nostalgia
cultural appropriation the process of one culture adopting customs and knowledge of one culture and using it for its own benefit ex. the westernization of japan
assimilation process through which a group lose once differentiating traits after coming in contact with another culture
voluntary: immigration
involuntary: native americans in the U.S.
commodification the process by which something that was not originally regarded as something to be heavily bought and sold becomes so on the world market
authenticity consumers determine what is authentic and what is not
how are hearths of popular culture traits established? typically begins with a good or idea and contagious diffusion which move to hierarchical diffusion, companies or individuals can create popular culture
distance decay likelihood of diffusion decreases as time and distance from the hearth increases
time-space compression the likelihood of diffusion depends upon the connectedness among places
reterritorialization when aspects of popular culture are produced by people in an area who do so within the context of their own culture
cultural landscape the visible human imprint on the landscape
sequent occupation cultural imprints of successive societies on a place, contributing to the cultural landscape
placelessness the loss of uniqueness in a cultural landscape – one place looks like the next
ethnocentrism judging other by one's own cultural standards
convergence of cultural landscapes diffusion of architectural forms and planning ideas around the world
cocl #2 the widespread distribution of businesses and products creates distinctive landscape stamps around the world
cocl #3 borrowing of idealized landscape images blurs place distinctiveness ex. skyscrapers and urban centers, shopping centers, and highways
global-local continuum what happens at one scale is not independent of what happens at other scales
glocalization the character of a place comes from interactions of local distinctiveness and smaller-scaled influences
house types kniffen's traditional american house types: new england, mid-atlantic, southern tidewater