Vocabulary Workshop Unit 2

Term Definition
ameliorate to improve, make better, correct a flaw or shortcoming
aplomb poise, assurance, great self-confidence; perpendicularity
bombastic pompous or overblown in language; full of high-sounding words intended to conceal a lack of ideas
callow without experience; immature, not fully developed; lacking sophistication and poise; without feathers
drivel saliva or mucus flowing from the mouth or the nose; foolish, aimless talk or thinking; nonsense;
to let saliva flow from the mouth; to utter nonsense or childish twaddle; to waste or fritter away foolishly
epitome a summary, condensed account; an instance that represents a greater reality
exhort to urge strongly, advise earnestly
ex officio by virtue of holding a certain office
infringe to violate, trespass, go beyond recognized bounds
ingratiate to make oneself agreeable and thus gain favor or acceptance by others(sometimes used in a critical or derogatory sense)
interloper one who moves in where he or she is not wanted or has no right to be, an intruder
intrinsic belonging to someone or something by its very nature, essential, inherent; originating in a bodily organ or part
inveigh to make a violent attack in words, express strong disapproval
lassitude weariness of body or mind, lack of energy
millennium a period of one thousand years; a period of great joy
occult secret, hidden from view; not detectable by ordinary means; mysterious, magical, uncanny; to hide, cover up; eclipse; matters involving the supernatural
permeate to spread through, penetrate, soak through
precipitate to fall as moisture; to bring about suddenly; to hurl down from great height; to give distinct form to; characterized by excessive haste; moisture; the product of an action or process
stringent strict, severe; rigorously or urgently binding or compelling; sharp or bitter to the taste
surmise to think or believe without certain supporting evidence; to conjecture or guess; likely idea that lacks definite proof

nutrition test 2

Question Answer
Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids
Protein-sparing action is the process by which the body derives energy from sources other than protein. Such sources can include fatty tissues, dietary fats and carbohydrates
Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body
insulin when is it secreted – by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas.
and what does it do to the glucose? Keeps blood sugar from getting to high
glucagon a hormone formed in the pancreas that promotes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver. when is it secreted – causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream.
what does glucagon do to the glucose? causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose
Normal BGL 70-100
• Health Benefits of high fiber in diets. Protection from heart disease, Reducing risk of Type II diabetes, Protect against colon cancer, Maintain health of GI health – Promote weight control
viscous their health benefits Protect against heart disease & diabetes.
non-viscous fibers their health benefits Maintains healthy digestive tract and alleviates constipation.
viscous Learn few food sources of these fibers. fruits and legumes
Non-viscous Learn few food sources of these fibers. grains and vegetables
• Current dietary recommendations: total carbohydrates (45% – 65% of total kcalories for the day) and dietary fiber (25 – 35 g)
Triglyceride An ester formed from glycerol and three fatty acid groups. Are the main constituents of natural fats and oils, and high concentrations in the blood indicate an elevated risk of stroke.
Saturated holding as much water or moisture as can be absorbed; thoroughly soaked
unsaturated carbon double or triple bonds and therefore not containing the greatest possible number of hydrogen atoms for the number of carbons.
fatty acids carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group, especially any of those occurring as esters in fats and oils
Monounsaturated saturated except for one multiple bond. Exp olive oil
polyunsaturated fatty acids fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone exp walnuts, sunflower seeds
What is hydrogenation? What bad fats does this produce? converting liquid vegetable oils into solid fats by the process of adding hydrogen) trans fats
more saturated fats solid like butter
more unsaturated fats liquid like oils
Phospholipids: characteristics, example (soluble in water and fat) example (lecithin)
• Major sterol cholesterol:
cholesterol to make hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help you digest foods
• Role of soluble fiber in lowering blood cholesterol (it traps bile and is excreted, so the liver uses cholesterol to make new bile, thereby reducing body’s cholesterol
o role of bile (emulsifies fats)
o the 4 lipoproteins (Chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL & HDL) and their properties
LDL delivers cholesterol to cells in the body.
Chylomicrons and VLDL deliver TAG to cells in the body
HDL is involved in reverse cholesterol transport
HDL and LDL HDL (good cholesterol) and LDL (bad cholesterol)
o Desirable levels of triglycerides 150mg/dl
o Desirable levels of ldl 139mg/dl
o Desirable levels of hdl ideal 60, less 50 women, 40 men risk
• 2 Essential fatty acids: names Linoleic and Linolenic acids
• Omega 6 fatty acids (linoleic and arachidonic acids) and omega 3 fatty acids
food sources and benefits to health (linolenic, eicosapentaenoic acid – EPA and docosahexaenoic acid – DHA):
“hearty-healthy” foods which are low in saturated fat and trans-fat, high in soluble fiber, rich in mono and poly unsaturated fats (olive oil, oatmeal, etc)
• Dietary guidelines (2010) and recommendations for fat intake [20% – 35% of total kcalories for the day, by reducing saturated fats (to less than 10% of total kcalories) and increasing monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats] and cholesterol intake ( less than 300 mg per day)
• Element found in protein that is unique Nitrogen
• Number of amino acids 20
• Side group – unique to AA (every amino acid is different because of their unique side group)
• Essential Amino acids indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet
• hydrolysis the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
dipeptides a peptide composed of two amino-acid residues.
• Tripeptides, is a peptide consisting of three amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
• Polypeptides a linear organic polymer consisting of a large number of amino-acid residues bonded together in a chain, forming part of (or the whole of) a protein molecule.
• Protein synthesis errors e.g. Hemoglobin structure (carries oxygen) and sickle cell anemia
Denaturation process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure & 2nd structure which is present in their native state,
Denaturation by application of some external stress, compound such as a strong acid, base a concentrated inorganic salt, organic solvent
pepsin enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. It is produced in the stomach and is one of the main digestive enzymes in the digestive systems of humans and many other animals, where it helps digest the proteins in food
proteins are important in transport and hemoglobin, is an example since it transports oxygen
• Protein sparing effects of carbohydrate and fat (if sufficient carbohydrates and fat are present in the diet, proteins are spared to do their functions of synthesis of body proteins)
• Positive and negative N2 balance is associated with periods of growth, hypothyroidism, tissue repair, and pregnancy. … This means that the amount of nitrogen excreted from the body is greater than the amount of nitrogen ingested
• Deamination of amino group: what happens to it? The amino group is converted ammonia, which is toxic, which travels in blood and the liver converts it to urea, which is less toxic; which is then removed and excreted by the kidneys)
• Quality of protein: High quality eggs, soy; Poor quality– corn
• Protein energy malnutrition: Marasmus – and Kwashiorkor Marasmus – chronic (protein & energy deficiency) and Kwashiorkor – acute (severe protein deficiency)
• Homocysteine and Heart Disease (higher amino acid homocysteine levels, higher risk of heart diseases)
• Protein intake and calcium metabolism (higher intakes of protein, especially animal protein, there is increased excretion of calcium – risk of osteoporosis)
• Recommended intakes of protein: 10% – 35% of total kcalories for the day
Protein RDA is 0.8 gram per kilogram of healthy body weight per day,
i.e., 0.8g / kg body weight/ day.
Metabolism the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
Anabolism the synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy; constructive metabolism.
Catabolism the breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones, together with the release of energy; destructive metabolism.
• Glucose – preferred source of energy for central nervous system, brain and red blood cells

list1-5

Term Definition
lent full of
fract break
bell war
ous full of
amor love
feculent foul,disgusting
amorous affectionate,loving
refractory stubborn
pompous proud,arrogant
belligerent aggressive or hostile
sub under
per through
ambul walk
syn together
ven come
subjugate to bring under submission; to control
perambulate to wander through
synthesize to combine in a single unit
percieve to recongnize , to identify , to understand
covene to meet together
se apart
hend grasp
luc light
greg group
sequester to set apart
lucid characterized by clear perception or understanding
reprehend to scold,reprove, or chide
gregarious sociable , talkative
bellow to roar, violently shout
fid faith
snact holy
anim mind
loqu talk
plus add
fidelity loyalty
sacrosanct scared or holy
animosity feeling of strong dislike
loquacious talkative
nonplussed confused
phil love
fort strong
fulg shine or flash
culp blame
circum around
philanthropy the generous giving of ones resources to help others
fortitude calmness of mind in dangerous or chaotic situations
refulgent shining
culpable guilty , blameable
circumvent to get around ; dodge

CIW Lesson 1

Term Definition
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) A technology that allows greater style definition and formatting control of HTML elements. Formatting can be placed within the HTML or called remotely from an external style sheet.
cloud computing Software, infrastructure and platform services that are hosted by a remote data center and provided to organizations or individuals over the Internet.
Document Type Definition (DTD) A set of rules contained in a simple text file that defines the structure, syntax and vocabulary as it relates to tags and attributes for a corresponding document.
Extensive Markup Language (XML) A markup language that describes document content instead of adding structure or formatting to document content. A simplified version of SGML.
graphical user interface (GUI) A program that provides visual navigation with menus and screen icons, and performs automated functions when users click command buttons.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) The traditional authoring language used to develop Web pages for many applications.
markup language A series of commands used to format, organize and describe information on a Web page.
metalanguage A language used for defining other languages.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) A protocol that enables operating systems to map file name extensions to corresponding applications. Also used by applications to automatically process files downloaded from the Internet.
on the fly Dynamically created Web page content, as opposed to pre-defined, static content.
Software as a Service (SaaS) Software that is hosted centrally on the Internet and accessed by users with a Web browser.
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) A metalanguage used to create other languages, including HTML and XHTML.
troll A Web user who publishes negative comments or submits feedback simply to annoy or anger.
trouble ticket A record of a problem related to a service provided by an ISP or cloud service provider. Used to record receipt of a complaint and track resolution of the problem.
user agent Any application, such as a Web browser, mobile phone, smartphone or help engine, that renders HTML for display to users.
wireframing The process of developing an outline for a Web presence.

Science 8 Unit 2

Question Answer
Large divisions that make up the earth's crust Tectonic Plates
Most directly affects the season's on earth The earth's tilt
The planet whose gravity is most responsible for keeping asteroids away from earth Jupiter
The study of the earth geology
The thinnest layer of the earth crust
Two types of tectonic plates oceanic & continental
Creation of new oceanic crust sea-floor spreading
Example of tension pulling a rope in tug-of-war
Where does sea-floor spreading occur? mid-ocean ridge
What kind of boundary is subduction most likely to occur? Convergent
How does our moon compare to other moons in our solar system? It's larger
What protects the earth from solar flares? earth's magnetic field
What is the theoretical supercontinent called? Pangea

Ch.16

Term Definition
complaint a formal notice that a lawsuit is being brought
summons a notice directing someone to appear in court to answer a complaint or a charge
discovery process by which attorneys have opportunity to check facts and gather evidence
settlement in a legal case, the amount of money the defendant agrees to pay the plaintiff
prosecution party who starts the legal proceedings against another party for a violation of the law
crime an act that breaks a law and causes harm to people or society in general
penal code a state's written criminal laws
parole to grant a prisoner an early release from prison, with certain restrictions
mandatory sentencing punishment that judges must impose according to what the law directs
arraignment a hearing in which a suspect is charged and pleads guilty or not guilty
testimony the statement a witness makes under oath
cross-examine to question a witness at a trial or a hearing to check or discredit the testimony
acquittal a vote of not guilty
hung jury a jury that cannot agree on a verdict
juvenile a person not yet legally an adult
juvenile delinquent a child or teenager who commits a serious crime or repeatedly breaks the law
rehabilitate to correct a person's behavior

List 1-5

Term Definition
Lent Full of
Fract Break
Bell War
Ous Full of
Amor Love
Feculent Foul, Disgusting
Amorous Affectionate, Loving
Refractory Stubborn
Pompous Proud, Arrogant
Belligerent Aggressive, Hostile
Sub Under
Per Through
Ambul Walk
Syn Together
Ven Come
Subjugate To bring under submission; To control
Perambulate To wander through
Synthesize To combine into a single unit
Perceive To recognize, to identify, to understand
Convene To meet together
Se Apart
Hend Grasp
Luc Light
Greg Group
Sequester To set apart
Lucid Characterized by clear perception or understanding
Reprehend To scold, reprove, or chide
Gregarious Socialble, talkative
Bellow To roar, to violently shout
Fid Faith
Sanct Holy
Anim Mind
Loqu Talk
PLus Add
Fidelity Loyalty
Sacrosanct Sacred or holy
Aminosity Feeling of strong dislike
Loquacious Talkative
Nonplussed Confused
Phil Love
Fort Strong
Fulg Shine or flash
Culp Blame
Circum Around
Philantrophy The generous giving of one's resources to help others
Fortitude Calmness of mind in dangerous or chaotic situations
Refulgent Shining
Culpable Guilty, blameable
Circumvent To get around; Dodge

H.E.I. Flashcards Human Environment Interaction Flashcards

Term Definition
Intended Consequences Planned results, usually positive
Unintended Consequences Unplanned results, usually negative
Irrigation Using ditches to bring water to crops
Terrace Farming "Steps" of level areas carved into hills for farming
Urbanization Movement of people into cities
Deforestation Clearing a forest of trees so it is no longer a forest
Pollution Contamination of the environment by harmful substances
Construction of Dams Wall of earth, rock or concrete to create a reservoir (lake)
Seismic Activity Earthquakes and other movements of Earth's Crust
Stilt Houses Houses built on poles to raise them off the ground
Agriculture Farming, growing crops and raising animals for food
Culture Way of life of a group of people. (Language, foods, music, art, religion, literature)
Cultural Diffusion Movement of products and ideas from one place to another
Canals Man made water ways to create transportation routes and to water crops
Desertification The process of good land turning into desert.
Desalination The process of removing salt water from ocean water to make fresh water
Push Factors Forces that drive people away from a place (Negative/bad)
Pull Factors Forces that draw people to immigrate to a place (Positive/good)
Migration Movement of people from one place to another to live
Social Factors Things relating to life and human society; discrimination, intolerance and religion
Political Factors Things related to the government, laws and war
Economic Factors Things related to money, trade, goods and services
Environmental Factors Things related to the environment, climate and natural disasters
Silk Road Overland trade route between China and Middle East and Rome
Cultural Region A way of life of a group of people: language, religion, history, music, food, etc
Net Migration Rate The rate of people moving into a country minus the number of people moving out of the country.
Immigrate To move INto a country.
Emigrate To move OUT (exit) a country.

night chapt. review

Term Definition
constraint restrictions
provisions necessary supplies,such as food
hermetically sealed against the entry or escape of air
pestilential likely to case an epidemic
notorious known widely, imfamous
devoid completely lacking or empty
monocle an eyeglass for one eye
lucidity restriction
convalescent returning to health after an illness
blandishments coaxing by flattery

Night Vocabulary 1

Term Definition
Surname Real Name
Encumbered Restrict or Burden
Insignificant Too Small Or Unimportant To Be Worth Consideration.
Profoundly Important.
Deportees A Person Who Has Been Or Is Being Expelled From A Country.
Emigration the act of leaving one's own country to settle permanently in another; moving abroad.
Treatise a written work dealing formally and systematically with a subject.
Anecdotes a short and amusing or interesting story about a real incident or person.
Melancholy a feeling of pensive sadness, typically with no obvious cause.